I'm confused as to what mode computers boot in. My thought process was that since kernel mode is effectively the base layer of protection for the computer, it would boot in kernel mode and then load user mode. User mode is also effectively a subset of kernel mode? So you would have to load kernel mode before switching into user mode, right?

  • $\begingroup$ Kernel mode.Go through thegeekstuff.com/2011/02/linux-boot-process this will clear you the booting process. $\endgroup$ – Maharaj Jul 12 '16 at 5:35
  • $\begingroup$ How is this a computer science question? Community votes, please: offtopic? $\endgroup$ – Raphael Jul 12 '16 at 8:54
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    $\begingroup$ @Raphael Dijkstra notwithstanding, computer architecture is a branch of computer science. $\endgroup$ – Gilles 'SO- stop being evil' Jul 12 '16 at 12:30
  • $\begingroup$ @Gilles To me, this seems to be more of a question about PCs than about operating systems concepts. If it can be read and answered as the latter, I'm okay. $\endgroup$ – Raphael Jul 12 '16 at 12:44
  • $\begingroup$ I think the answer depends on when "booting" ends. Especially in microkernel OSes, I would say much of the "booting" process is done in both user mode (mostly) and kernel mode. At the very beginning of the bootstrap, it has to be either in kernel mode, or in user mode with a very loose memory access configuration (albeit the latter looks as a mostly theoretical possibility than a good practice). $\endgroup$ – chi Jul 12 '16 at 13:24

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