I seem to recall an academic paper from some years ago which used machine learning (possibly genetic or evolutionary programming) to predict whether a Turing Machine would halt.
By predict, I mean the standard notion in ML: minimize the error on some validation set. For simplicity, let's assume that the ML is a binary classifier, (although AFAIK the actual paper may have framed it as a regression problem).
The notion is then not 'solving' the Halting Problem (which we know is impossible), but rather using ML to agree with an Oracle that knows the answer on the training (and validation) set.
However, I haven't been able to find anything so far.
Does anyone know of a reference?