I know that (at least at its conception) Linux and Mac OS were both monolithic kernels. My question is, what kind of kernels are Linux, Mac OS, and Windows today and why?

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    $\begingroup$ What kind of research have you done? We expect you to do a significant amount of research before asking, and to show us in the question what you've come up with so far. There's plenty written about the Mac OS X kernel, its origins, and its architecture, for instance. $\endgroup$ – D.W. Sep 7 '16 at 18:22
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    $\begingroup$ This may be better suited to Unix & Linux, Ask Different (?) and Super User (?), respectively. I'm not sure discussing implementation choices of real-life OSs are quite ontopic here. Community votes, please! $\endgroup$ – Raphael Sep 7 '16 at 22:30
  • $\begingroup$ One additional complication is that in practice, "monolithic" and "microkernel" are models (or philosophies?) of operating system kernel design and implementation. Even those diagrams which show the structure of some real-world kernel or other don't always tell the whole truth. In a kernel which is nominally "micro" in nature, real-world engineers are perfectly willing to put in a trapdoor so that some part of the executive can get into supervisor mode for just that one little thing... $\endgroup$ – Pseudonym Sep 8 '16 at 0:26
  • $\begingroup$ @Raphael: I’m torn: I tend to agree that the question is insufficiently theorietical, yet feel at the same time that it is reasonable to want to have a single synoptic question&answer: so where? $\endgroup$ – PJTraill Sep 11 '16 at 15:29
  • $\begingroup$ This is a great basic question. I finally acknowledge that MS produced a solid OS with 10, but it still seems to have a cludgey architecture, re: the registry. Android seems to be based on Linux, and my understanding is that Mac OS is also modeled more on Unix, and thus more straightforward. $\endgroup$ – DukeZhou Jan 18 '19 at 20:15

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