# delaunay sweep circle initialization

I recently came accross an interesting "sweep circle" algorithm for delaunay triangulation [1].

It's basic idea is seeding with a trivial triangulation (3 points), then gradually extending it outwards (points are sorted by their distance from a chosen origin - the sweep-circle center) while preserving the legality of the triangulation by flipping triangles if needed, always starting from the new one, and continueing to neighbouring triangles of flipped ones.

I've implemented it, and it works nicely, but I still struggle with making the seeding part flawless.

The thing is :

• In order to ensure that each new point is outside of the current envelope ("frontier" in the article), you have to make sure that the swept points are closer to the origin than the unswept points.
• In order to find where to connect the new point, you have to have the origin inside the envelope (so angular sort of the envelope and binary search will do).

Starting at some iteration this will natuarally happen, but the problem is making it happen for the seed points.

So what I aim at is finding an origin which fulfills :

• Be inside the seed triangulation.
• Have the seed points the closest points to it (have the sweep circle strictly containing the seed points empty of other points).

The article suggests taking some average point as the origin, and start with the 3 points closest to it, but this clearly fails if these 3 points are on the same side of the chosen origin, so they form a triangle that is not containing it.

A different but somewhat similar algorithm [2] is suggesting choosing an arbitrary point, then taking the point closest to it, and the point that creates the smallest circumcircle with the other two, and fix the origin as the center of their circumcircle, but that's clearly not working either, unless these 3 points happen to form an acute triangle (is this circle even ensured to be empty of other points?).

Currently I use a similar idea - arbitrary point + 2 closest points to it, as the first 3 points, but I fix the origin as some point inside the formed triangle (e.g their average), which basically works, but can fail in principal.

I'm looking for another simple way to do it, or a way to detect when the proposed method is not working and fix it in a clever way involving the point that "ruined it", before the iterations begin and without having to deal with more than 2 seed triangles (4 points), or having to make many iterations or guesses at init stage.

I know I can take the first point and shift it by some small $\epsilon$ towards inside the triangle, and it should work, as long as it's smaller than say the minimum distance bewteen 2 points, but I'm looking for a clever solution, and I am especially interested in a solution that can chose an integer origin for a set of integer points, for then the whole algorithm can be implemented using only integral arithmetics (faster, less error prone).

Bottom line :

I think it all comes down to this :

Given a set of n points in the plane, find a point O which lies strictly inside the triangle formed by the 3 points of the set closest to it (to O).

But I guess that put in the context, there might be solutions to implementing a working version of the algorithm that bypass this question.

References :

1. A faster circle-sweep Delaunay triangulation algorithm by Ahmad Biniaz and Gholamhossein Dastghaibyfard (2011)
2. S-hull: a fast radial sweep-hull routine for Delaunay triangulation by D. A. Sinclair (2016)
• Could you clarify (in the Bottom line section) what the actual question you want to ask is? Sep 20, 2016 at 23:29