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My thoughts process: let number of elements in heap be $n$, total height of binary heap be $H$, height of node be $h$, and let number of nodes with height $h$ be $x$.

Then number of nodes with height $H-1 \le 2^1, H-2 \le 2^2, ... => x \le 2^{H-h} = 2^{\lfloor \lg n \rfloor - h} = \frac{2^{\lfloor \lg n \rfloor }}{2^h}$

However, I don't see how this can be transformed to $\lceil \frac{n}{2^{h+1}} \rceil$, as $n/2$ is less than $2^{\lfloor \lg n \rfloor }$

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  • $\begingroup$ Is this a binary heap with just the usual heap invariant or does it also have some balance constraints that it has to satisfy as well? For example, I can create a degenerate heap that's just a list that nevertheless satisfies the heap invariant (namely, that the children must be smaller than the parent). $\endgroup$ – Lee Nov 16 '16 at 0:12
  • $\begingroup$ @LeeGao, it is book question, I suppose it is usual binary heap, as there was nothing about balancing in this chapter $\endgroup$ – Joe Half Face Nov 16 '16 at 0:20
  • $\begingroup$ @LeeGao According to wikipedia, a binary heap is defined to have the property of a complete binary tree (All levels except possible the lowest one are fully filled, and the lowest level is filled from left to right). $\endgroup$ – skankhunt42 Nov 16 '16 at 7:07
  • $\begingroup$ I wasn't aware that this is the standard definition. I was taught that binary heaps should satisfy the shape property, but that it isn't always required. $\endgroup$ – Lee Nov 16 '16 at 8:04
  • $\begingroup$ If it's from a book, can you give the citation to the book where it appears and the chapter & exercise number? There's a chance it might help others to look up the context there (e.g., how that book defines binary heap), if they have a copy too. $\endgroup$ – D.W. Nov 16 '16 at 16:30
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$n$ element tree has depth $\lceil{\log_2n}\rceil-1$. If $h$ is the height of nodes in any $n$ element heap from leaves then the nodes are situated at the depth of $\lceil{\log_2n}\rceil-1-h$ from the root.

Now, at most $2^{\lceil{\log_2n}\rceil-1-h} = \lceil{\frac{n}{2^{h+1}}}\rceil$ nodes/leaves are possible with $\lceil{\log_2n}\rceil-1-h$ depth in a heap.

Note that depth is the number of edges from the root & height is the number of edges from the highest level in a heap.

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