I'm currently working with this grammar:

  1. $S \to aSBC$
  2. $S \to aBC$
  3. $CB \to BC$
  4. $aB \to ab$
  5. $bB \to bb$
  6. $bC \to bc$
  7. $cC \to cc$

It is supposed to define the language $$ L = \{a^nb^nc^n : n \geq 1\}. $$

I need to know how to get through the grammar rules to end up with $L$. So I started with the first two rules which end up to be $a^n(BC)^n$.

$$ S \Rightarrow^* a^{n-1}S(BC)^{n-1} \Rightarrow a^{n-1} aBC (BC)^{n-1} = a^n (BC)^n.$$

It's quite obvious until there. My lecture than adds the third rule to $a^n(BC)^n$:

$$ a^n(BC)^n \Rightarrow^* a^nB^nC^n. $$

And that's where I'm completely lost. How is the third rule applied if its left-hand side ($CB$) isn't even part of the initial word ($a^n(BC)^n$)?


1 Answer 1


When we write $a^n(BC)^n$, we mean the word composed of $n$ copies of $a$ followed by $n$ copies of $BC$; using $^n$ is just a shortcut. For example, $a^2(BC)^2$ is shortcut for the word $aaBCBC$. Indeed, $^n$ just doesn't belong to the syntax of words, which states that a word is a sequence of terminals and non-terminals.


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