We have a DFA $A = (Q,\Sigma, \delta, q_0, F)$. States $p, q$ $\in Q$ are equivalent, $p \sim q$ if $ \forall w \in \Sigma ^ \ast$ $ \delta^*(p,w) \in F \iff \delta^*(q,w) \in F$

States $p,q$ are equivalent after $i$ steps, $p \sim ^i q$, if $ \forall w \in \Sigma ^ \ast$ such that $|w|\le i$ $ \delta^*(p,w) \in F \iff \delta^*(q,w) \in F$

$p \sim q$, if $ \forall i$ $p \sim ^i q$

State equivalence $\sim$ creates a partition $Q/\sim$ of states to equivalence classes.

I am trying to find a $n$-state DFA for all $n \ge 2$ where the state equivalence relation $\sim$ is equal to the state equivalence relation after $n - 2$ steps, $\sim^{n-2}$, but is not equal to the state equivalence relation after $n - 3$ steps, $\sim^{n-3}$.

So I'm searching for DFAs which require exactly $n - 2$ transitions to check the equivalence. I don't know how to approach this problem.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ In any case, I would suggest solving this for $n=3,4,5,\ldots$, and then trying to find a solution for general $n$. $\endgroup$ Mar 12, 2017 at 14:46
  • $\begingroup$ Try the language $\{ x \in 0^* : |x| < n \}$. $\endgroup$ Mar 12, 2017 at 17:12

1 Answer 1


Consider the following DFA on the alphabet $\{0\}$:

  • The states are $q_1,\ldots,q_n$, with $q_1$ initial and $q_n$ final.
  • $\delta(q_i,0) = q_{i+1}$ for $i < n$, and $\delta(q_n,0) = q_n$.

Consider the pair of states $q_1,q_2$. For $i < n-2$, $\delta^*(q_1,0^i),\delta^*(q_2,0^i) \notin F$, whereas $\delta^*(q_1,0^{n-2}) = q_{n-1} \notin F$, $\delta^*(q_2,0^{n-2}) = q_n \in F$.


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