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I am currently stuck on a question from Sipser's book of automata. The question goes like this:

Consider the following language: V = {w|w = 0a for some a which is an element of HALT} U {w|w=1b for some b which is an element of complement of HALT }

Prove that V is unrecognizable? Prove that complement of V is unrecognizable?

I kinda know that to prove them we have to use contradiction but I got stuck after that and haven't been able to come up with any solution up till now. Any pointers/hints would be appreciated.

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If $V$ was recognizable then the language of Halting problem could be reduced to $V$ as following.

Let $M_V$ be a TM recognizing $V$, i.e, $M_V$ accepts $x$ if $x \in V$. Let $u$ be some string (description of a TM). Then we run $M_V$ on $0u$ and $1u$ by dovetailing. $M_V$ will eventually halt on one of these inputs since $u$ is either in $HALT$ or not in $HALT$. So, when it halts we simply check: if $M$ has halted on $0u$ then $u \in HALT$, else if $M$ has halted on 1u then $u \notin HALT$. Thus this implies that $HALT$ is decidable which is impossible.

Similarly for $\overline{V}$. Let $u$ be some string (description of a TM). If $M_{\overline{V}}$ accepts $0u$ then $u \notin HALT$. If $M_{\overline{V}}$ accepts $1u$ then $u \in HALT$.

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  • $\begingroup$ What does element of halt mean here? $\endgroup$ – Sagar P Nov 25 '17 at 14:36
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    $\begingroup$ @SagarP $HALT = \{ \langle M,w \rangle \mid M \text{ is a TM and } M \text{ halts on } w\}$. $\endgroup$ – fade2black Nov 25 '17 at 14:46
  • $\begingroup$ Hey, I have one silly doubt. In 2nd part where we find the complement of the language, why are you still considering union and not intersection ? It should be L1' intersection L2' and not L1' union L2' right ? $\endgroup$ – Sagar P Nov 27 '17 at 8:21
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    $\begingroup$ @SagarP You are right, $\overline{V} = \overline{L_1} \cap \overline{L_2}$ and I don't claim that it is union. I simply use the fact that $\forall u \notin HALT$, $0u \in \overline{V}$ and $\forall u \in HALT$, $1u \in \overline{V}$ by the definition of $V$. $\endgroup$ – fade2black Nov 27 '17 at 12:35
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    $\begingroup$ @SagarP complement of $L_1$ contains also strings starting with $1$. $\endgroup$ – fade2black Nov 27 '17 at 13:37

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