I do not understand what is a ridge for hill climbing. The definition I found is a place where all points appear like a maximum, but how is that different than a plateau?

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    $\begingroup$ I can't speak with any authority, but from your description I can guess. On a plateau, there are no gradients. On a ridge (say, a two-dimensional line of maxima in a 3d space), each point has gradients pointing to it (from all but two (?) directions). $\endgroup$ – Raphael Jan 16 '18 at 16:22

The same answer you'd get on The Great Outdoors Stack Exchange: it's one of these.

enter image description here Photo: ridge from Mount OtenSho to Mount Tsubakuro, Japan. By Alpsdrake; public domain; from Wikipedia

On a plateau, your value doesn't change much if you move in any direction. On a ridge, your value doesn't change much if you move in one direction, but it falls a lot if you move in the other directions.

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