I'm trying to figure out a way to think about this problem. Background: Given an unsorted array of distinct integers (can be positive or negative), I want to determine if there is an element in the array that is equal to its rank (i.e. if I do $S = Sort(Array)$, I want to find an element s.t. $S[i] = i$).
Some approaches I have thought about.
Radix sort: But there's no guarantee on what is the largest/smallest element here
Any comparison based sorting method: But that gets me at least $O(n \lg n)$ time.
So it seems that I am not supposed to sort before I figure out what the ranks of the elements in the array are. I also feel that it needs to be a selection type algorithm, but I am not sure how that can be applied here. Any ideas on where to go from here?