In his paper Computer Machinery and Intelligence, Turing addresses some arguments against the ability of a computer to pass the Turing test, such as the Theological Argument, the Mathematical Objection and the Argument from Consciousness. I wonder what is the current status of this debate; are there strong counterarguments for Turing's objections? Moreover, what is the most relevant bibliography on this topic?
EWD898 might be an intersting starting point.
The Fathers of the field had been pretty confusing: John von Neumann speculated about computers and the human brain in analogies sufficiently wild to be worthy of a medieval thinker and Alan M. Turing thought about criteria to settle the question of whether Machines Can Think, a question of which we now know that it is about as relevant as the question of whether Submarines Can Swim.