I don't know how to find a loop invariant. I'm not sure where to start. Can anyone find the loop invariant of the given program and explain your method please.

{n ≥ 0 ∧ i = 0}
while i < n − 1 loop
b[i] := a[i + 1];
i:=i + 1
end loop
{∀j.(0 ≤ j < n − 1 → b[j] = a[j + 1])}
  • $\begingroup$ What did you try? Where did you get stuck? If you don't know where to start, that usually means you need to go back and review your lecture notes. $\endgroup$ Commented Mar 20, 2018 at 9:43
  • $\begingroup$ The invariant expresses that the array copy has been partially performed. $\endgroup$
    – user16034
    Commented Mar 20, 2018 at 10:57

1 Answer 1


At the end of each iteration you have $$ \forall j: 0 \leq j < i \implies b[j] = a[j+1] $$ which you can prove by induction. Thus, when the algorithm terminates, $i$ has reached $n-1$ and you have $$ \forall j: 0 \leq j < n-1 \implies b[j] = a[j+1]\,. $$

I figured this out by just asking myself what kind of statement I can make at the end of each iteration. In this case it's that the first $i$ elements have been copied. Then I just turned that into a formal statement.

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ In general if you are trying to end up with post-condition R(n) then at the end of each iteration you may have R(i) ;-) $\endgroup$ Commented Mar 20, 2018 at 11:40

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