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I'm reading A Rendezvous of Logic, Complexity and Algebra, my first introduction to the world of CSP. Let $\Gamma$ be a finite constraint language. It says in Pg. 9 that

$Pol(\Gamma)$ is used to denote the set of all polymorphisms of $\Gamma$, that is, $$Pol(Γ) = \{f : \forall R \in \Gamma, \textrm{ f is a polymorphism of }R\}.$$ Also, for a set of operations $O$, we use $Inv(O)$ to denote the set of relations having all operations in $O$ as a polymorphism, that is, $$Inv(O) = \{R : \forall f \in O, \textrm{ f is a polymorphism of } R\}.$$

The answer to my question is: No (in fact it is a subset of $\Gamma$). But I don't understand why:

  1. Isn't every $R\in \Gamma$ in $Inv(Pol(\Gamma))$?
  2. Are the $R$'s from $Inv(O)$ allowed to come only from $\Gamma$?
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The operation $\operatorname{Inv}(\operatorname{Pol}(\cdot))$ is a closure operation. This means that

  1. $\Gamma \subseteq \operatorname{Inv}(\operatorname{Pol}(\Gamma))$.
  2. $\operatorname{Inv}(\operatorname{Pol}(\Gamma)) = \operatorname{Inv}(\operatorname{Pol}(\operatorname{Inv}(\operatorname{Pol}(\Gamma))))$.

See for example lecture notes of Jin-Yi Cai.

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