According to Turing thesis, Can we say all programming languages that support turing machine like C have same power for solving problems and performing algorithms? In other words is there any algorithm or problem that one of them can solve it and the other can't?
The notion you are looking for is probably Turing completeness. All languages that are Turing complete are essentially equivalent in what problems they can solve (at least in principle). Most general-purpose programming languages are Turing complete.