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### Finite languages are Turing decidable - contradiction [duplicate]

Let's say that I define the language $L$ over the alphabet $\{0, 1\}$ to be a language containing only one word, $w$, where:  w = \begin{cases} 1 & \text{if the continuum hypothesis is ...
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### Why, really, is the Halting Problem so important?

I don't understand why the Halting Problem is so often used to dismiss the possibility of determining whether a program halts. The Wikipedia article correctly explains that a deterministic machine ...
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### If everyone believes P ≠ NP, why is everyone sceptical of proof attempts for P ≠ NP?

Many seem to believe that $P\ne NP$, but many also believe it to be very unlikely that this will ever be proven. Is there not some inconsistency to this? If you hold that such a proof is unlikely, ...
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### What are the simplest examples of programs that we do not know whether they terminate?

The halting problem states there is no algorithm that will determine if a given program halts. As a consequence, there should be programs about which we can not tell whether they terminate or not. ...
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### Differences and relationships between randomized and nondeterministic algorithms?

What differences and relationships are between randomized algorithms and nondeterministic algorithms? From Wikipedia A randomized algorithm is an algorithm which employs a degree of randomness ...
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### Proof that dead code cannot be detected by compilers

I'm planning to teach a winter course on a varying number of topics, one of which is going to be compilers. Now, I came across this problem while thinking of assignments to give throughout the quarter,...
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### How long does the Collatz recursion run?

I have the following Python code. ...
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### Is the halting problem decidable for pure programs on an ideal computer?

It's fairly simple to understand why the halting problem is undecidable for impure programs (i.e., ones that have I/O and/or states dependent on the machine-global state); but intuitively, it seems ...
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