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Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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How to perform particle swarm optimization clustering of results obtained from tf-idf vectorizer?

I have a collection of news articles. I have performed tf-idf operations on them. I am using python as programming language so it was just the use of TF-IDF vectorizer function. I now have the ...
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How can I build a web page with web mining my artificial intelligence? [on hold]

I would like to build a webpage which use the web-mining but for cryptocurrency mining but also my artificial intelligence training in the web page background. Can we do this? How can I do?
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23 views

forward checking is useless?

From the book russel & norvig One of the simplest forms of inference is called forward checking. Whenever a variable X is assigned, the forward-checking process establishes arc consistency for ...
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14 views

How to go about designing a quiz that changes difficulty based on user performance?

I thought about using a machine learning algorithm to learn the performance patterns of the quiz taker and model the next quiz based on how he/she performed. So each question will have a difficulty ...
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28 views

general question about linear algebra [closed]

have new discoveries been made in linear algebra since the dawn of AI or was it all "laid out" for the computer scientists by former mathematicians?
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2answers
38 views

Does an optimal path imply the heuristic is admissible?

If we are given an A$^*$ path search with some heuristic $h$ that yields an optimal path, without knowing that the heuristic is admissible beforehand, would this imply that $h$ is admissible?
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1answer
20 views

How do we fix area of detectors in object detection?

I have gone through various articles on medium and also some from other sites trying to understand SSD. I am able to figure out most of the things from articles except this one. They always say that ...
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11 views

What's the difference between size ordering/ data ordering/ least recently used rule?

What's the difference between size ordering/ data ordering/ least recently used rule? I did lots of researches already, and most of the books say: Data ordering: Arrange all possible assertions in ...
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1answer
30 views

Learning a perceptron from stream data

I want to train a Perceptron using stochastic gradient rulefrom the stream data. I have very limited amount of memory and i can store only $N$ examples. Suppose my population consist of point as ...
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How MAC-3(maintaining arc consistency-3) algorithm works?

I am studying CSP problems in artificial intelligence. I don't understand the MAC-3 algorithm especially line number 10. Could you tell me with step by step? ...
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1answer
28 views

Search on Conformant Problem: solution for subset of a belief state

I am having trouble understanding the following statement. I have understood why in a sensorless/conformant problem, if there exists a solution (a sequence of actions) for a belief state $b$, then it ...
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18 views

Value iteration in MDP - updating each state once per inner loop?

In value iteration algorithm we update the utility of all possible states ("for each state update its new utility"). After we've updated all states we check to see if the delta is smaller than some ...
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2answers
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Choosing heuristic for A* algorithm where cost is less than absolute distance

Looking for information on choosing a heuristic for instances where the cost of traversing an edge can be less than one. For example, say movement is allowed in the cardinal directions. Should all ...
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Relevance of the ZeroSum game to Heuristic search?

A question was posed to me as to the relevance of the ZeroSum game to Heuristic search algorithms. I know that the zero sun game is a theory in which one persons gain is exactly balanced to another ...
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Is MCTS an appropriate method for this problem size (large action/state space)?

I'm doing a research on a finite horizon decision problem with $t=1,\dots,40$ periods. In every time step $t$, the (only) agent has to chose an action $a(t) \in A(t)$, while the agent is in state $s(t)...
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1answer
25 views

Real world applications of first order logic

I study an AI course and we done some lectures about first order logic and the first thing that I was thinking is, what are the real world applications of first order logic and generally logical ...
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36 views

Genetic Algorithm - likely population of parents after roulette-wheel selection

Below is a question from a past paper that I am attempting to understand in preparation for an exam. Am completely stuck on it. Would appreciate any pointers in the right direction. How do we go ...
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1answer
28 views

Optimality of A* search

I use the A* search algorithm to to search for the shortest path from S to G. The evaluation function is $f(n) = g(n) + h(n)$. Since node A and B have the same estimated total cost, I choose to go ...
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How many states are examined in the most wins heuristic for tic-tac-toe (9-grid)?

I'm new to AI, and have a hard time to understanding how to count the total states are examined in the most wins heuristic for tic-tac-toe two plys deeper(9-grid)? Need help
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1answer
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Does domination rule apply for inadmissible heuristics?

Let's say $h_1(n) \geq h_2(n)$ so that dominance is established even if $h_1$ and $h_2$ are both inadmissible/non-optimal heuristics -in whichever given search space. Is $h_1$ still faster/better ...
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Why aren’t (type theory based) automated theorem provers efficient?

Note: my main experience with theorem provers is with Type theory based proof-assistant, rather than an actual automated theorem prover. It is obvious why naive automated theorem proving is ...
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1answer
37 views

Is Artificial General Intelligence possible with our current machine learning models? [closed]

In other words, is artificial human level intelligence not possible yet just because of limitations in processing power and amount of data required to train the models? Or we don't have the knowledge ...
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84 views

understanding constraint satisfaction problem: map coloring algorithm

I am trying to implement this recursive-backtracking function for a constraint satisfaction problem from the given algorithm: ...
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1answer
29 views

Steps to create a heuristic for solving a problem

I am completely new to AI and doing self-learning to acquire this knowledge. I went through the different available search algorithm like BFS, DFS and A* but something that I can't understand is a ...
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1answer
44 views

Proving Monotonicity of Softmax Layer

In the book here: http://neuralnetworksanddeeplearning.com/chap3.html If you scroll down to Exercise 2 in the Softmax Section, it says Show that $\partial a^L_{j}/\partial z^L_{k}$ is positive if $...
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What are good examples of computational theories for A.I. according to David Marr's Definition?

I was reading David Marr's "Artificial Intelligence-A Personal View" and he talks about "computational theory of AI" or what he laters labels as "Type 1" Theory. He provides the example of Chomsky's ...
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1answer
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Understanding Alpha Beta Pruning: Why do we ignore the values of a unsearched tree after the first leaf, can they not include acceptable values too?

So this is my question. I am trying to understand this part of the book: At d) why do we stop looking at the other nodes in that branch? There could be a acceptable value next to the 2? I am just ...
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1answer
57 views

Artificial intelligence and undecidibility

Can artificial intelligence solve problems like Post correspondence problem?
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1answer
13 views

Are there existing extensions to behavior trees that fascilitate node communication?

I've been looking into behavior trees, but I cannot find a lot about them. The Wikipedia page pretty much only mentions sequence and selector nodes. I have found implementations that also provide ...
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1answer
42 views

The task of recognizing game units in the screenshot

I'm new to computer vision and I want to solve the task of recognizing the game units of the game Clash Royale in the screenshot. Briefly, there are about 70 different types of gaming units belonging ...
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1answer
73 views

Rational versus intelligent agents

Question about "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Russell and Norvig" I have issue to distinguish clearly between intelligent and rational agent presented by Norvig and Russel. What I ...
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1answer
32 views

Formal definition of loss surface of multi-layered networks

Let $\mathcal{L}$ be a loss function associated with a multi-layered neural network. So it seems almost everyone in AI/ML community is interested in the Hessian $H=\partial^2 \mathcal{L}$ of $\...
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1answer
72 views

How do you protect an AI from a human doing “illogical” moves?

Using a monte carlo approach and evalutation function. Some moves will deemed to be more advantageous than others. As a computer plays itself, it will generally go for the best moves possible. And ...
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112 views

Reverse engineering a neural network

Suppose we have a neural network (such as google uses for instance) which detects an object in images, which could be a cat or car. Suppose that it is instead an alien artifact that we dont have ...
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Which area of research is the logical successor to Minsky's society of mind idea?

I'm curious if there is any body of research that could be considered as the logical successor to Marvin Minsky's "society of mind" idea? It seems as if the notion of agents plays a crucial role in ...
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How Does Aproximate Reinforcement Learning Reduce State Space?

I was following reinforcement learning lecture from "CS188 Artificial Intelligence, Fall 2013". Here is the slide: In the video, the lecturer says with approximate reinforcement learning we store ...
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320 views

Use Machine Learning to predict when a Gas Station is running out of fuel

We have years of data on several Gas-Stations. Data about the Gas-Stations: the number of tanks, Gallons per tank, Location, number of pumps, kind of fuel, etc. Data on fuel consumption for x gas ...
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1answer
44 views

Resolution Algorithm - No new clauses

The standard resolution algorithm returns false if no new clauses are added. I know that if $KB \land \neg a \implies []$, it returns true by proof by contradiction, but how can I understand the ...
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Good pointers to learn foundations of Program induction and Program synthesis

I was interested in learning more about program induction and program synthesis. I was especially interested in learning about how to form program from data for example. My background is in ...
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Literature similar to Minsky's “Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence” (1961)?

With great pleasure I was just reviewing Marvin Minsky's publication "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence" from 1961. Now I would like to know whether there are any more compilations about the ...
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1answer
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Is this passage from the textbook Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach incorrect?

On page 383, section 10.2. of the Algorithms for Planning as State Space Search chapter of the textbook Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, the following passage appears: In this passage, the ...
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1answer
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Decision Tree Learning Deviation - Russell and Norvig

I am working through the Russell and Norvig AI book and came across the following on the top of page 706. The section concerns Decision Tree pruning and testing a given attribute against the null ...
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2answers
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Training a neural net without labels in Reinforcement Learning

I am trying to dig further into machine learning and I am making a program to play a game as a start. I have created a game that is based on the mobile game Flappy Bird and can be generalized to the ...
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1answer
24 views

Status questionis for whether a machine can or can't “think”

In his paper Computer Machinery and Intelligence, Turing addresses some arguments against the ability of a computer to pass the Turing test, such as the Theological Argument, the Mathematical ...
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Reducing amount of possible states solving Pacman by searching

I consider simplified Pacman game: movement is discrete (on the grid), ghosts move deterministically based on difference between their and Pacmans coordinates, ghosts move every second turn, ghosts ...
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Neural Network Shape / Structure

I am attempting to learn neural networks using the Keras libary on the MNIST hand written digit dataset, using dense layers only. I am trying to figure out what the best shape for the network should ...
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1answer
114 views

Can the foundation of computer science be implemented to include new rules of inference so that computer can do causal reasoning?

The idea I'm thinking of is about a top-down approach for AI. I would like to know if there can be a model for computers so that they can perform causal reasoning. It seems that causal relation can be ...
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42 views

A* algorithm to solve a title puzzle

The title puzzle has a setup of. Www_bbb where there are always 3 w's And 3 b's and 1_ . The rules of the puzzle are to get all w's on the right side of all b's where location of _ does not matter,...
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1answer
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Neural net that alters its own parameters

Is it possible for an AI neural net to be able to modify its own parameters/hyperparameters and/or add new parameters/hyperparameters? If so, how has it been implemented? For example, to simulate a ...
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1answer
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Convolutional Neural Network for Insects

I've recently started learning CNN's. I need a CNN that is specialized for insects detection. Dead insects will be put on a piece of paper / container, then images will be taken from a same distance, ...