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Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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1answer
12 views

Multi-agent randomized behavior

In Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Edition 3, Page of 43, At Single Vs. Multi-agent section's last line, Writer says, In some competitive environments, randomized behavior is rational ...
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1answer
39 views

General resolution in first order logic

Assuming you have a formula in first order logic like $$(\forall_x p(x) \land \forall_x q(x)) \rightarrow \forall_x(p(x) \land q(x))$$ (which seems valid?) Converting the formula to ...
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What is the best programming language for coding a Slagle-esque integrator? [closed]

I want to program a symbolic integrator like the one Slagle wrote. I was planning to use SML. Is there a better choice of programming language?
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4answers
15k views

Water Jug Problem in AI

In AI we can classify a problem in 3 classes, ignorable, recoverable or irrecoverable problems. Now while reading Water jug Problem I am wondering in which of these 3 class it should fall? It should ...
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0answers
11 views

Sensor-less Version of the Erratic Vacuum World

Consider the sensor-less version of the erratic vacuum world.Draw the belief –state {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8} and explain why the problem is unsolvable. I am not able to understand why this problem is ...
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1answer
17 views

How does image reconstruction take place in neural network?

I am reading through and thinking about how neural network works and have been reading about convolutional neural networks (CNN). I am particularly interested in image filtering (or enhancing) using ...
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1answer
59 views

Human brain vs computer

I am looking for a problem that can not be solved by computer but can be solved by human while computer can verify if the answer is correct or not. In fact what is the question in my head is that is ...
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1answer
239 views

Chinese room test vs Turing Test

So, I took up a new course (AI) in my uni and came across these two test $TURING$ $TEST$ and $CHINESE$ $ROOM$ $TEST$. But I am not able to understand is the Chinese room test really accurate? Does it ...
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1answer
33 views

support vector machine values

Does anybody knows how to calculate w1 and w2 and b . I have the formula but I have no idea where those numbers come from . my question has solution so it is not a home work because the solution of ...
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1answer
52 views

Is it possible to use “and”, “or” “not” as relation/predicate in an ontology? In order to represent causality?

If we use an ontology we can represent knowledge, using notably semantic triple <s,p,o>. I was wondering how can I represent this: A and B cause C or A ...
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1answer
21 views

Neural network game players and incremental updates

Neural networks in recent years have been successfully used for gameplaying. A difference between games and e.g. image processing is that the game boards get updated incrementally. Do any neural ...
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2answers
40 views

Why does a RNN network output different based on the training sequence

I've set up an RNN LSTM network in Java using DL4J as the library. I currently have 500 examples of positive text, and 500 examples of negative text. When I fitness the training data by first ...
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1answer
47 views

Are chatbots a good example of overfitting?

In my highschool class we are learning about Artificial Intelligence, and especially the problems that come with machine learning. I was wondering if chatbots like cleverbot were good examples of ...
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22 views

How are image processing and computer vision related to artificial intelligence.?

We have often heard both terms image processing and computer vision in AI sessions But i am confused, how they both are related to artificial intelligence?
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0answers
12 views

Clustering - Complete Linkage draw example

I'm studying unsupervised learning methods (clustering) and i've seen the Complete Linkage Method. I've also seen the following statement: Unlike single linkage, the complete linkage method can be ...
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2answers
64 views

Assuming an infinite amount of computing resources, would the minmax algorithm always win in chess?

The minmax algorithm is a popular strategy used to design chess engines. Usually, since the state-space of chess is huge, we choose a fixed depth and evaluate the game tree down to that level, and ...
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20 views

Value flow (and economics) in stacked reinforcement learning systems: agent as reinforcement environment for other agents?

There is evolving notion of stacked reinforcement learning systems, e.g. https://www.ijcai.org/proceedings/2018/0103.pdf - where one RL systems executes actions of the second RL system and it itself ...
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56 views

What are the differences and similarities between CYC and IBM Watson?

From what I gathered from Wikipedia, CYC is based on set membership logic. So it would take symbols and create set membership predicates. But how is this different from IBM Watson?
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5 views

How do I input (magnitude of) numerical data in CNN/U-net like architectures?

I've been given some (latitudes,longitudes) points with cellular signal strength(float numbers) on those particular points. And I've been given the location, (lat,longs) of cellular towers in a ...
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1answer
59 views

Search vs planning in artificial intelligence

I'm studying artificial intelligence following the Russell & Norvig book. We did a search and planning part that for me is the same (at least on the representation). I'd like to know what is the ...
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2answers
140 views

How do you prove a heuristic is admissible?

How does one prove that a suggested heuristic is admissible? Is this even possible? For Example: Let's say I have the game Free Cell. Rules: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreeCell How can I ...
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0answers
14 views

What is the difference between behavioural cloning and imitation learning?

What is the difference between behavioural cloning and imitation learning? I am getting quite conflicting responses: https://medium.com/@paichul/building-driving-assist-system-part-1-f7fb9278670c ...
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0answers
54 views

Multi Agent Sokoban Solvers state of the art

I am researching into coding a solver for a variant of the Sokoban game with multiple agents, restrictions (eg. colors of stones, goals) and relaxations (push AND pull possible etc.) By researching ...
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2answers
48 views

Don't understand minimax algorithm in terms of chess

I'm new to minimax algorithm, but i understand it's entire concepts as it's easy, my biggest issue is understanding it's implementation to my chess game, no internet solution answers this question ...
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0answers
14 views

are there any other strategies used in connect 4 and are they better or worse than minmax with alpha beta? [duplicate]

Just curious about ai strategies that people use for connect 4 besides minimax with alphabeta pruning because I see a lot of people using minimax + evaluation in the internet. Are there other ...
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0answers
65 views

Law as a computer science problem?

For a long time, computer scientists and logicians have noticed that law (statutes, contracts, adjudication, etc), has some similarity with formal logic and programming languages, and have approached ...
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2answers
245 views

The barbers paradox first order logic formalization

I tried to look on the site and while I found some similar questions, I did not find the first order logic formalization of the following sentence (the basic barber's paradox), so I wanted to ask if I ...
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0answers
59 views

Sorting using AI / neural net

I have a search operation taking place on a server that essentially queries images using OpenCV against other images from a database. Since each image query ...
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1answer
23 views

List of all possible reasoning tasks - satisfiability and theorem proving only?

What is the exhaustive list of reasoning tasks? As far as I can understand, then any logical reasoning reduces to 2 tasks only: 1) satisfiability problem (finding the assignment of the variables) and ...
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2answers
110 views

How to find the best exploration parameter in a Monte Carlo tree search?

I've developed a Monte Carlo tree search algorithm in checkers. Here is my question. What should be the value of $C$, the exploration parameter in the following formula described in Monte Carlo Tree ...
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1answer
73 views

Two Minimax AIs playing against each other

I am trying to have my Minimax AI chess players play against each other. I was a bit confused about an implementation detail. Let's call black my first minimax AI ...
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0answers
53 views

How to perform particle swarm optimization clustering of results obtained from tf-idf vectorizer?

I have a collection of news articles. I have performed tf-idf operations on them. I am using python as programming language so it was just the use of TF-IDF vectorizer function. I now have the ...
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0answers
20 views

How to go about designing a quiz that changes difficulty based on user performance?

I thought about using a machine learning algorithm to learn the performance patterns of the quiz taker and model the next quiz based on how he/she performed. So each question will have a difficulty ...
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0answers
31 views

general question about linear algebra [closed]

have new discoveries been made in linear algebra since the dawn of AI or was it all "laid out" for the computer scientists by former mathematicians?
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2answers
74 views

Does an optimal path imply the heuristic is admissible?

If we are given an A$^*$ path search with some heuristic $h$ that yields an optimal path, without knowing that the heuristic is admissible beforehand, would this imply that $h$ is admissible?
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1answer
31 views

How do we fix area of detectors in object detection?

I have gone through various articles on medium and also some from other sites trying to understand SSD. I am able to figure out most of the things from articles except this one. They always say that ...
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0answers
16 views

What's the difference between size ordering/ data ordering/ least recently used rule?

What's the difference between size ordering/ data ordering/ least recently used rule? I did lots of researches already, and most of the books say: Data ordering: Arrange all possible assertions in ...
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2answers
49 views

Learning a perceptron from stream data

I want to train a Perceptron using stochastic gradient rulefrom the stream data. I have very limited amount of memory and i can store only $N$ examples. Suppose my population consist of point as ...
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0answers
170 views

How MAC-3(maintaining arc consistency-3) algorithm works?

I am studying CSP problems in artificial intelligence. I don't understand the MAC-3 algorithm especially line number 10. Could you tell me with step by step? ...
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1answer
81 views

Search on Conformant Problem: solution for subset of a belief state

I am having trouble understanding the following statement. I have understood why in a sensorless/conformant problem, if there exists a solution (a sequence of actions) for a belief state $b$, then it ...
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0answers
21 views

Value iteration in MDP - updating each state once per inner loop?

In value iteration algorithm we update the utility of all possible states ("for each state update its new utility"). After we've updated all states we check to see if the delta is smaller than some ...
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2answers
78 views

Choosing heuristic for A* algorithm where cost is less than absolute distance

Looking for information on choosing a heuristic for instances where the cost of traversing an edge can be less than one. For example, say movement is allowed in the cardinal directions. Should all ...
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0answers
22 views

Relevance of the ZeroSum game to Heuristic search?

A question was posed to me as to the relevance of the ZeroSum game to Heuristic search algorithms. I know that the zero sun game is a theory in which one persons gain is exactly balanced to another ...
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0answers
121 views

Is MCTS an appropriate method for this problem size (large action/state space)?

I'm doing a research on a finite horizon decision problem with $t=1,\dots,40$ periods. In every time step $t$, the (only) agent has to chose an action $a(t) \in A(t)$, while the agent is in state $s(t)...
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1answer
105 views

Real world applications of first order logic

I study an AI course and we done some lectures about first order logic and the first thing that I was thinking is, what are the real world applications of first order logic and generally logical ...
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0answers
96 views

Genetic Algorithm - likely population of parents after roulette-wheel selection

Below is a question from a past paper that I am attempting to understand in preparation for an exam. Am completely stuck on it. Would appreciate any pointers in the right direction. How do we go ...
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1answer
114 views

Optimality of A* search

I use the A* search algorithm to to search for the shortest path from S to G. The evaluation function is $f(n) = g(n) + h(n)$. Since node A and B have the same estimated total cost, I choose to go ...
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0answers
30 views

How many states are examined in the most wins heuristic for tic-tac-toe (9-grid)?

I'm new to AI, and have a hard time to understanding how to count the total states are examined in the most wins heuristic for tic-tac-toe two plys deeper(9-grid)? Need help
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1answer
116 views

Does domination rule apply for inadmissible heuristics?

Let's say $h_1(n) \geq h_2(n)$ so that dominance is established even if $h_1$ and $h_2$ are both inadmissible/non-optimal heuristics -in whichever given search space. Is $h_1$ still faster/better ...
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0answers
19 views

Why aren’t (type theory based) automated theorem provers efficient?

Note: my main experience with theorem provers is with Type theory based proof-assistant, rather than an actual automated theorem prover. It is obvious why naive automated theorem proving is ...