Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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What is the “intelligence” for the AI system? [closed]

Currently, everyone talks about Machine Intelligence. The so-called AI can mimic human being actions. But the mimicking behaviors are not intelligence. Also we do not know what is a good measure for ...
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Begin with AWS or Azure ML Course? (or something else?)

I tend to see a lot of ML/AI/DL courses everywhere. Having no background in either of these, I am confused about what to do and where to begin. I was suggested to have a look into the Stanford Andrew ...
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How to find unary potential in belief propagation algorithm for Markov Random Field with a tree structure?

Given that I have a Markov Random Field with a tree structure, which means that belief propagation (or sum product) algorithm will give me the exact solution when I query for marginal probabilities. I ...
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object image segmentation

I have 2 different datasets with similar objects, one where each object is 50 pixels wide and the other where they are 150 pixels. Each photo is 512x512 for both datasets. These two datasets have the ...
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Which field is suitable for me which have worked as a programmer?

I'm a computer programmer which have worked in this field which high level languages such as C#, python, javascript, java and some c++ experience. I don't assume myself as a professional programmer, ...
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Creating An Artificial Universe

This is a general question and one that has bugged me for a long time. I want to start working on an artificial universe, not something too ambitious but more of a basic concept. What I have in mind ...
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Artificial Intelligence

Table-Driven agent performs well when the table’s size is relative small. However, as the size of the table grows the efficiency of the agent decreases. We can reduce the table size by only ...
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1answer
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How do we fix area of detectors in object detection?

I have gone through various articles on medium and also some from other sites trying to understand SSD. I am able to figure out most of the things from articles except this one. They always say that ...
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2answers
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How can I treat a problem like a search problem in AI?

I'm a CS student and I'm trying to understand the searching algorithms used in AI. My problem is that I don't really understand how to treat a problem like a search problem. I don't know which would ...
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58 views

Books for the Mathematical Theory of AI/ML

I am interested in the mathematical foundations of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Are there any books which will describe and present the mathematical foundations in detail? I am not ...
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How does image reconstruction take place in neural network?

I am reading through and thinking about how neural network works and have been reading about convolutional neural networks (CNN). I am particularly interested in image filtering (or enhancing) using ...
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61 views

Approximating Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) with Binarized Neural Networks (BNNs)

I am working currently as a research intern on Binarized Neural Networks where the weights and the activations of the network are binary. The architecture of this type of networks makes them memory ...
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About the complexity of deciding if the closed world assumption for renamable Horn CNF is consistent

Let $T$ be a theory that only contains renamable horn formulas. What is the complexity of deciding if the closed world assumption $CWA(T)$ is consistent? The closed world assumption is defined as ...
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How are prime implicates of HORN-Formulas defined?

I'm confused about the definition of prime implicates in Horn formulas. For example in the paper of Kira 2012 on page 109 it is stated: Now in the paper of Boros 2010 on page 82 the following ...
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Formal definition of loss surface of multi-layered networks

Let $\mathcal{L}$ be a loss function associated with a multi-layered neural network. So it seems almost everyone in AI/ML community is interested in the Hessian $H=\partial^2 \mathcal{L}$ of $\...
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support vector machine values

Does anybody knows how to calculate w1 and w2 and b . I have the formula but I have no idea where those numbers come from . my question has solution so it is not a home work because the solution of ...
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Situation calculus: how to find pre-conditions in 15-puzzle game?

I have been working on finding the preconditions for a situation calculus example for some time now. This example is called the game "15-puzzle" where you can find a discription here https://...
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Why do AI researchers seem to think that consciousness is a computation?

Disclaimer: I am just an undergraduate student so my exposure to a lot of things is certainly limited. I am not sure about the actual popularity of the idea that consciousness is a computation but my ...
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1answer
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Confused on Variational AutoEncoder

I'm a bit confused on how Variational Autoencoders are trained. In particular I'm confused on how the latent variable is generated for each input. My questions are as follows: When running ...
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Delta rule for binary step function

I have a question of understanding about the Delta Rule: $\Delta w_i = (y - \hat{y}) \times x_i$ Why does $x$ have to be multiplied again after the difference? If the input is $0$, the product of $w$...
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1answer
36 views

Face recognition system with a sparse dataset

I have a dataset of 100 ID's, each ID with only a single unique face image. How can I develop an effective face recognition system to recognise only these faces? I was thinking Deep Learning but the ...
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1answer
27 views

Performing semantic segmentation on images on word documents

At the moment, I'm making a comparative analysis between two different neural networks for a class. The problem they are both trying to solve is detecting tables on documents. Below is an example of ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is the size of the search space 2057 in the 8-queen puzzle?

In the 8-queen puzzle, to reduce the search space, we can use an incremental approach. We put the first queen in the first column, then the 2nd queen in the 2nd column etc., avoiding the slots that ...
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Retrieving data from website - Parser vs AI

I'm currently working on a personal software project (as a hobby) and would like to know which kind of approach I should follow according to you. My application scans some websites (like Amazon or ...
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Is there any way that I, a CLI PHP developer, could “hook into” some kind of AI blackbox?

For many years now, I have heard about "AI" and "neural networks" and all these buzzwords, and it is regularly claimed on Slashdot that this or that open source program is able to "do AI". But then I ...
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Search algorithm for vehicles moving through a square grid

I started to learn AI and I'm trying to solve the following problem like a search problem and I'm wondering which search algorithm would be the best in this case. Please give me at least some tips, I ...
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Calculate the number of models of a KB

Suppose we had a domain with two individuals, $x$ and $y$. Suppose we had two predicate symbols $p$ and $q$ and three constants $a$, $b$, and $c$. Suppose we had the knowledge base KB defined by: ...
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Nim game tree + minimax

Problem : Two players have in front of them a single pile of objects, say a stack of 7 pennies. The first player divides the original stack into two stacks that must be unequal. Each player ...
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Time efficient way to implement Multi-Armed-Bandits?

I'm doing a research on Multi-Armed Bandit (MAB) problem with approx. 1 million arms. In contrast, the number of iterations is of course much larger, about 10-20 million. Most MAB-algorithms require ...
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1answer
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Predicting next action to take to reach a final state

Does anyone know of an algorithm that could be used to determine the next action to take to reach a desired state when trained on time-series data? For example, a robot starts at a certain state, ...
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How to get synonyms from definitions using Bayes algorithm

I work on a project: an online dictionary where the user can find definitions of a word he's looking for. My supervisor asked us to add synonyms using machine learning. He recommend us to use Bayes ...
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4answers
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Are all computer viruses man-made?

I'm curious if the origin of any successful computer virus is known to NOT have an intentional, human originator. To put it another way, do computer viruses ever "spontaneously" originate through the ...
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Understanding the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno Algorithm to Select Weights for Neural Nets

I am trying to train and implement a Neural Network. I was reading a few articles, learning about their principles and the math that goes behind them. However, while I was trying to understand the ...
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Is Artificial intelligence simply taking decisions on the basis of values produced by a machine learning model

I am researching on AI and its working. Whenever I try to search for AI algorithms, ML algorithms come up. Then, I read the differences between ML & AI. One of the key points mentioned was "AI is ...
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the meaning of heuristics in artificial intelligence

I would like to know what 'heuristics' actually means in artificial intelligence. For example, I am reading a paper by Engelbrecht on the convergence analysis of the particles of the algorithm. The ...
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Coding a Binary Constraint in Python

I am working on a CSP solver in python, and am stuck how to code the constraints. According to my assignment, the constraints are given through an input file, and can contain operators such as <, >,...
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Sample applications based on First Order Logic

I often hear about benefits of FOL, but I wonder what are some of its real world applications? Could someone please provide samples/case studies of applications of FOL that address real world ...
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What is the meaning of the mutation rate in genetic algorithms?

Let us suppose that we have a mutation rate of 5%. What does this mean? Each gene of each individual has 5% of probability of change to another value? At the end, around 5% of the genes of each ...
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When would best first search be worse than breadth first search?

I am studying best first search as it compares to BFS (breadth-first search) and DFS (depth-first search), but I don't know when BFS is better than best-first search. So, my question is When would ...
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2answers
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Being stuck and frustrated with my masters project

I'm doing a masters in CS that requires me to implement from scratch most of the neural network models and because python libraries aren't applicable to what i want. The problem is that i don't feel ...
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Need recursive version of Conflict based backjumping

I am implementing conflict directed Backjumping algorithm of prosser in java. But, the algorithm is iterative approach. How can it be built with recursive approach? In AIMA they give the recursive ...
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Good AI model for learning to write code, specifically generate css from any given html?

Currently I am working on getting lots of html code and its related css, via id or class name. Once I have enough data to work with I am unsure how it would be easiest for any model to learn what css ...
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Why does my EM algorithm not converge?

Any ideas why my likelihood probability for this EM algorithm doesn't converge (have slope of 0) to "find" the three clusters? I've tried increasing the iterations, which makes the slope nearly ...
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2answers
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Neural network game players and incremental updates

Neural networks in recent years have been successfully used for gameplaying. A difference between games and e.g. image processing is that the game boards get updated incrementally. Do any neural ...
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understanding constraint satisfaction problem: map coloring algorithm

I am trying to implement this recursive-backtracking function for a constraint satisfaction problem from the given algorithm: ...
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15k views

What is Least-Constraining-Value?

In constraint satisfaction problems, heuristics can be used to improve the performance of a bactracking solver. Three commonly given heuristics for simple backtracking solvers are: Minimum-remaining-...
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Effect of value of k in K-Nearest Neighbor

In K-Nearest Neighbor the value of k decides the accuracy of classification. What are the pros and cons of choosing smaller value for k and larger value for k?
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Training a model from self-play

Say I'd like to build a Go AI. The Go AI takes in the board state and then predicts who's more likely to win from that state. When I want to make a move, I just test every next board state I could ...
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Multi-agent randomized behavior

In Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Edition 3, Page of 43, At Single Vs. Multi-agent section's last line, Writer says, In some competitive environments, randomized behavior is rational ...
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How to devise an algorithm to generate a random but valid train track layout?

I am wondering if I have quantity C of curved tracks and quantity S of straight tracks, how I could devise an algorithm, (computer assisted or not), to design a "random" layout using all of those ...

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