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Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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Toads and frogs game algorithm

I am looking for an algorithm (or hint where to start), for Toads and Frogs Game. What I am interested in is not how to solve the problem (it's NP-hard), but how to plan one player's moves. I.e. how ...
alex's user avatar
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5 votes
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Alpha beta algorithm with Iterative Deepening analysis

I'm implementing a chess engine. Like many engines, the search for the next best move is done with the alpha-beta algorithm. There are many improvements that can be made to make the algorithm faster ...
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Maximizing pruned branches in an alpha-beta tree

Preliminary After doing some searches of similar questions posted here and elsewhere, i feel like this is the right place to inquire about, now let's get through some boring main notations... A ...
Abr001am's user avatar
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Next-Word Prediction, Language Models, N-grams

I was looking into how a next-word prediction engine like swift key or XT9 can be implemented. Here's what I did. I read about n-grams here - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram and aicat.inf.ed.ac.uk/...
superuser's user avatar
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Recommendation algorithms based on a set of attributes

I'm building an application which should suggest products for the users. I want to base my recommendation on different attributes, like location, weather, date, etc. Each of these attributes can have ...
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3 votes
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Was there a phase in Machine Learning timeline when researchers thought some Neural Networks could not be trained?

I was talking to a professor who made a comment to my question. Me: So much of quality literature around this topic ( IP Protection for Neural Weights) emanated in 1990-1991, I'm truly at loss ...
user248884's user avatar
3 votes
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Is Chinese Checkers a solved game

Is there a machine or algorithm available to solve the board game "Chinese checkers"? If there is please let me know about relevant material. I have already searched over internet unfortunately i am ...
Hamza Ali Siddiqui's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
192 views

Can cognitive architectures (CLARION, SOAR, ACT-R) be used for creative mathematical reasoning?

Can cognitive architectures (CLARION, SOAR, ACT-R, others) be used for creative mathematical reasoning? As far as I understand, then it is the best to encode formal mathematical knowledge in the ...
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What are the inputs to an LSTM for Slot Filling Task

I am confused on the inputs of a Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) for the slot filling task in Spoken Language Understanding. Before I worked on this, I implemented a language model with a Recurrent ...
user12345's user avatar
3 votes
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194 views

Is "expert system" now an obsolete/unpopular term?

While doing research on expert systems, I notice that it is rare to see this term used in the last 20 years. For example, a recent paper was: Wang, Hao, Naiyan Wang, and Dit-Yan Yeung. "Collaborative ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
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A case study for search techniques in AI

We are teaching an artificial intelligence class and we need a different case study other than geographical maps (the popular example is the map of Romania) to explain the difference between Breadth-...
Muaad ElSharif's user avatar
3 votes
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proof that STRIPS terminates

I was reading page 6 of https://www.cs.cmu.edu/~reids/planning/handouts/Linear.pdf And it is not clear to me that the STRIPS algorithm necessarily terminates. Namely if we have a simple goal sg on ...
Sidharth Ghoshal's user avatar
3 votes
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2k views

Estimating size of state space

I have been studying search problems in AI, and I am having some troubles understanding some points in these concepts: State Space: "represents the environment of the problem, the set of all states ...
Salma's user avatar
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Is there a reduction concept in artitificial intelligence?

Is there a concept for comparing algorithms in artificial intelligence theory similar to reduction in complexity theory (Wikipedia)? I'm asking this because I was wondering how AI algorithms are to ...
FK82's user avatar
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What are the theoretical and practical contributions of Multiagent Systems to science?

Speaking about multiagent systems (MAS) is about as fuzzy as talking about artificial intelligence systems (AI). They are in essence the distributed counterpart of AI. While there are no so-called "...
Nicolas's user avatar
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144 views

Limited lookahead pathfinding strategies on infinite graphs

I'm new to pathfinding algorithms and trying to find a good or even optimal heuristic for the following problem: Say you have a 3D square-lattice cuboid graph with randomly removed edges (with ...
SLesslyTall's user avatar
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111 views

Why isn't there a big HTM machine already?

I've been reading a bit about Hierarchical Temporal Memory and Memory Prediction. I found a great paper: How the brain might work: A hierarchical and temporal model for learning and recognition, ...
Bartlomiej Lewandowski's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
837 views

How to tell if a Heuristic is monotonic

I've applied a Heuristic to a puzzle where I need to move all off the B's the the right of the W's. my Heuristic is the total distance of the B's from the right most W's. my initial state is (B,B,B,*,...
Nickknack's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
186 views

What is the difference between Swarm intelligence and Multiagentsystems?

Swarm intelligence and Multiagent systems are both a part of Distributed AI. Multiagent systems describe a system with agents, which communicate with each other. Swarm intelligence describes systems, ...
Marten's user avatar
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0 answers
54 views

Necessary or useful models/techniques for simulating natural evolution?

I'm a Psychology student with a decent (yet not extensive) knowledge of mathematics and computer science. My knowledge on this two fields are those of a person beginning the third year of computer ...
lafinur's user avatar
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Sample applications based on First Order Logic

I often hear about benefits of FOL, but I wonder what are some of its real world applications? Could someone please provide samples/case studies of applications of FOL that address real world ...
User 19826's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Why aren’t (type theory based) automated theorem provers efficient?

Note: my main experience with theorem provers is with Type theory based proof-assistant, rather than an actual automated theorem prover. It is obvious why naive automated theorem proving is ...
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2 votes
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59 views

Literature similar to Minsky's "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence" (1961)?

With great pleasure I was just reviewing Marvin Minsky's publication "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence" from 1961. Now I would like to know whether there are any more compilations about the ...
moooeeeep's user avatar
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Is one of the Advantages of AI symbolic systems the fact they are good at abstraction and modularity according to Minsky and Papert?

I was reading Perceptron's by Minsky's and Papert's book and there is a part where they discuss symbolic systems and one part of it says: Symbolic systems yield gains of their own...Above all else ...
Charlie Parker's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
613 views

Tuning the parameters of Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

To tune the parameters of Particle swarm optimization (PSO), there are two methods offline and online. In offline manner, the meta-optimization is used to tune the parameters of PSO by using another ...
shdotcom's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
290 views

The meaning of ontology in computer science

I am reading a paper and ran into this word Ontology-based, What does it really mean? I did searching about it but still ambiguous to me, can someone elaborate this ...
Mike's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
190 views

Posterior of a DP in a Dirichlet process mixture model

Draws from a Dirichlet process (DP) are discrete, and exhibit clustering behaviour. Dirichlet Processes The Dirichlet Process ($DP$) is a stochastic process used in Bayesian nonparametric modelling....
Astrid's user avatar
  • 317
2 votes
0 answers
98 views

KDD Machine Learning using K-NN Algorithm Classification Problem

I'm trying to solve a classification problem from the KDD cup archive of 2004. Details can be found here: KDD 2004 Archive I'm only dong the particle physics part. The description of dataset is as ...
Syed Ali Hamza's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
63 views

what is the best practice for turing test

I'm working on a AI project which generates poems in Turkish language like this project: https://github.com/schollz/poetry-generator It's a successful project but it's a template based poem generator....
zamalek7's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
514 views

How to select the maximum weight value for a bias node in a neural network?

I'm programming a neural network. I know that I should initialize the network by picking random weights. How do I pick a random weight for the connections to bias nodes? What distribution should I ...
Samuel Mungy's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
507 views

What is the difference between "objective function", "error function", "criterion function" and "cost function" in the context of neural networks?

The title says it all: I have seen three functions so far, that seem to be the same / similar: error function criterion function cost function objective function I am currently working on ...
Martin Thoma's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
4k views

Complexity of Alpha-Beta pruning with optimal move ordering

I originally read that Alpha-Beta pruning has time complexity of $O(b\ ^{m/2}\ )$ with perfect ordering (where b = branching factor, m = maximum ply depth) but have recently come across claims that ...
Cam's user avatar
  • 263
2 votes
0 answers
90 views

How does this star1 variation work? (star1 is a stochastic (dice) algorithm for artificial intelligence in adversarial games)

I don't understand how the star1 variation mentioned in the paper is Sparse Sampling for Adversarial different than the usual star1 algorithm? (Taken from the bottom of page 7). This variant can be ...
Tom's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Understanding Decision Stump in Adaboost

I am trying to understand how Adaboost works, and many of the tutorials online involve the use of a decision tree stump. For example, http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~thad/6601-gradAI-fall2013/boosting.pdf ...
Mariska's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
108 views

At what precision are GPT's parameters stored?

OpenAI's technical paper on GPT-3 says that GPT-3 has 175 billion parameters. Several sites (here, here) claim that these parameters are stored as single-precision floating-point numbers and so ...
tparker's user avatar
  • 1,116
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

Draw the decision boundary of an neural network

I'm really confused when it comes to what the difference between bias and threshold is. I have read that they are basically the same thing and that they serve the same purpose. Being on opposite sides ...
kim120's user avatar
  • 21
1 vote
0 answers
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New Knapsack Problem solution with neural network approach

While I was learning the Constraint Satisfaction Problems, I analyzed the Knapsack problem(https://www.csplib.org/Problems/prob133/) and I saw the approach with the neural network was not the best ...
ILIRKI's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
1 answer
137 views

Optimality of A* algorithm

In the book Artificial Intelligence a Modern Approach 4th edition, the author claims that the A* algorithm is cost-optimal if the heuristic function is ...
user101998's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Logical Consequence - Equivalent Assertions

I have the following slide in my notes and I'm having trouble understanding how the three assertions are equivalent. I understand to a degree how the 2nd and 3rd assertions are equivalent, but the ...
A. Boy's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
34 views

Does AC-3 algorithm decide a CSP?

If AC-3 algorithm returns an empty domain, we know for sure it cannot be solved. But given that it returns only domains with at least a variable in it, do we know the CSP is solvable?
Niclas's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
28 views

Blackwell-Rao applications to Machine Learning and AI

We learned recently in a graduate statistic course about Blackwell-Rao of an unbiased estimator statistic T; other methods for parameter estimation includes Maximum Likelihood and Method of Moments ...
metalder9's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
1 answer
111 views

How to think about heuristics

I have a game about drone delivery company. The game consists of a rectangular map, which contains tiles that cannot be passed. I can control a certain amount of drones, each one of them starts at a ...
Dani's user avatar
  • 131
1 vote
0 answers
27 views

Applications of derivative only, zeroth-order free optimization

I understand what is derivative-free optimization, and I am thinking a similar problem where the function $f$ we are optimizing is unknown and the only information we can acquire is the derivative. In ...
Francis's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Intelligent task distributor

On a distributed system, there are more than 50 machines than continuously read from a database which tasks they have to process. There is no criteria based on which a certain machine chooses which ...
tteguayco's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
0 answers
90 views

How to prove that the pseudo-code of thresholded-A* algorithm from my teacher's book is correct?

I have the following DFS2 pseudo-code, which is used in the pseudo-code of IDA*, from my teacher's book, but I cannot understand why it's correct: ...
Ning's user avatar
  • 249
1 vote
0 answers
44 views

Good AI model for learning to write code, specifically generate css from any given html?

Currently I am working on getting lots of html code and its related css, via id or class name. Once I have enough data to work with I am unsure how it would be easiest for any model to learn what css ...
Just_A.Technicality's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Value flow (and economics) in stacked reinforcement learning systems: agent as reinforcement environment for other agents?

There is evolving notion of stacked reinforcement learning systems, e.g. https://www.ijcai.org/proceedings/2018/0103.pdf - where one RL systems executes actions of the second RL system and it itself ...
TomR's user avatar
  • 1,401
1 vote
0 answers
162 views

What are the differences and similarities between CYC and IBM Watson?

From what I gathered from Wikipedia, CYC is based on set membership logic. So it would take symbols and create set membership predicates. But how is this different from IBM Watson?
Fomalhaut's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
168 views

Multi Agent Sokoban Solvers state of the art

I am researching into coding a solver for a variant of the Sokoban game with multiple agents, restrictions (eg. colors of stones, goals) and relaxations (push AND pull possible etc.) By researching ...
Panos Filianos's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
81 views

Law as a computer science problem?

For a long time, computer scientists and logicians have noticed that law (statutes, contracts, adjudication, etc), has some similarity with formal logic and programming languages, and have approached ...
user83014's user avatar