# Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

452 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
14k views

### Artificial Intelligence: Condition for BFS being optimal

It is said in the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach for finding a solution on a tree using BFS that: breadth-first search is optimal if the path cost is a nondecreasing function of ...
234 views

### Something I don't understand about Genetic Algorithms

I've had a bit of experience programming Neural networks but I am fairly new with genetic algorithms (I'm only 17). I have a major issue that I can't understand. If a child get's one chromatid from ...
220 views

### How does machine learning relate to artificial intelligence?

For example, is it a subset? Are they two separate fields in Computer Science? I have hear conflicting information: one professor said they are synonyms. However, in the courses taught at Stanford ...
684 views

### Automated geometric theorem-proving using synthetic methods

This question is about geometric theorem proving and is inspired by this Math.SE post. Currently, Euclidean-geometric theorem provers, as referred to in the post, use coordinate geometry to convert ...
176 views

### Analysis of komi values for increasing Go board sizes and agents strength

Komi is the additional number of points given to the non-starting player in the game of Go. For 19x19 board, currently it is 6.5 under Japanese rules, 7.5 points under Chinese rules. In the past it ...
704 views

### Dyna-Q in non-deterministic domains

I've implemented the Dyna-Q reinforcement learning algorithm and it works perfectly on a discrete deterministic environment, the cliff. However, when applying it to a continuous environment (mountain ...
102 views

### Clarification of the definition of a POMDP

From what I understand, a $MDP=(G, A, P, R)$ (markov decision process) is represented as: A complete directed graph $G=(V, E)$ A set of actions $A_u$ for each vertex $u \in V$ A reward function $R$ ...
682 views

### Algorithms to play randomized game

I'm interested in building an AI algorithm to play a board game. This is a sequential two-player game, where they alternate taking turns, so minimax or alpha-beta algorithms sound natural. However, ...
202 views

### Lamarckian and Genetic algorithm

Yesterday I've done some research how to optimize genetic algorithm and I've encountered a very interesting theory that we can use Lamarckian theory (adaptive theory) to optimize the neural network. ...
133 views

### Monte Carlo Tree Search in connect 5 tree design

I'm trying to create a mcts ai for connect 5 algorithm. However, I'm confused on designing the tree. Here is a quick description of the algorithm: The initial state, S0 is the board state where the ...
2k views

### How to verify that a heuristic is consistent?

A heuristic function is said to be consistent, or monotone, if its estimate is always less than or equal to the estimated distance from any neighboring vertex to the goal, plus the step cost of ...
330 views

### Are the Confabulation Theories of Thaler and Hecht-Nielsen Isomorphic?

Both S. L. Thaler and R. Hecht-Nielsen have set forth neural-based theories of "confabulation" applicable to machine learning. The essential mathematics of Hecht-Nielsen is set forth in his paper "...
167 views

### Flaw with Cross Entropy Error in Neural Networks

I've recently been working on creating a neural network to classify handwritten digits. I implemented 1-of-N encoding such that there are the same number of output nodes as possible digits (The ...
170 views

### Predicting next action to take to reach a final state

Does anyone know of an algorithm that could be used to determine the next action to take to reach a desired state when trained on time-series data? For example, a robot starts at a certain state, ...
1k views

### Alpha beta algorithm with Iterative Deepening analysis

I'm implementing a chess engine. Like many engines, the search for the next best move is done with the alpha-beta algorithm. There are many improvements that can be made to make the algorithm faster ...
1k views

### Toads and frogs game algorithm

I am looking for an algorithm (or hint where to start), for Toads and Frogs Game. What I am interested in is not how to solve the problem (it's NP-hard), but how to plan one player's moves. I.e. how ...
4k views

### Algorithms for Connect 4?

Im designing a program to play Connect 6, a variation of connect 4. I have narrowed down my options to the following: 1) Minimax with Alpha-Beta Proning 2) A Neural Net 3) Machine Learning My ...
73 views

### Explanation of proof of why connectedness is not conjunctively local of any order $k$

I was reading Minsky's and Papert's book on perceptrons and I was reading theorem 0.6.1 and I was having a hard time understanding it. The theorem was about proving that the property "connected" was ...
303 views

### How do neural networks create results like its inputs?

I understand basic neural networks (input layer, hidden layers, output layer) and gradient descent learning. However I keep hearing about news talking about neural networks painting and making jazz ...
444 views

### About randomness and minmax algorithm with alpha beta pruning

Will choosing the child of a node randomly in the alpha beta algorithm have a better chance to get a cut off than choosing them in order? Here's the pseudocode with my addition marked with ***. <...
347 views

### How are artificial intelligence and Natural intelligence compared?

I can remember reading that computer intelligence is heading (or maybe the most powerful ones already have) towards the Natural intelligence of a four-year-old child. But how are the two kinds of ...
1k views

### How can I compare two different neural networks, from a theorical point of view?

Let's say I have a problem (i.e. Given f(x), find x) and two neural networks(i.e. feedforward and recurrent). I would like to know if one works better than the other one. I could run the twos on a ...
110 views

### Are genetic algorithms an effective way to train neural networks?

It seems to me that genetic algorithms would be an ideal way to train neural networks so that they come to have the right weights, since they are especially good at escaping local minima, and ...
548 views

### Explanation of the knowledge representation hypothesis (Brian Smith)

In 1982 Brian Smith proposed his Knowledge Representation Hypothesis: Any mechanically embodied intelligent process will be comprised of structural ingredients that we as external ...
6k views

### Comparison between IDA* and Recursive best first search

How does IDA* compare to recursive best first search (RBFS), in terms of (a) the number of nodes expanded, and (b) space complexity? Both algorithms are intended to be memory-efficient heuristic ...
6k views

### ANN - Backpropagation with multiple output neurons

Can I utilize the backpropagation algorithm in a layered, feed-forward ANN in instances where there are multiple output neurons? If so, how? Links to (somewhat) comprehensible resources would be ...
1k views

### Genetic Algorithm, Neural Network, Deep Learning, Machine Learning Similarities and Applications? [closed]

I am a computer engineering student and trying to get the idea behind all these Artificial Intelligence Concepts and applications. I know little theoretically about machine learning and some high ...
391 views

### Successful applications of fuzzy logic to reasoning in AI?

I've done some searching and it seems that fuzzy logic is used in (electronic) controllers. I'm interested in seeing how well it fares as a tool for reasoning. Are there any robots or programs that do ...
164 views

### How do you prove a heuristic is admissible?

How does one prove that a suggested heuristic is admissible? Is this even possible? For Example: Let's say I have the game Free Cell. Rules: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreeCell How can I ...
115 views

### Any significance to why a lot of big names in AI have math PhD?

I've been looking into AI research and I've noticed a nontrivial amount of individuals either received a PhD in math or had advisors who received a PhD in math. Some names include (Ben Goertzel, ...
165 views

### What Properties Matter For the Bound on Generalization Error of Hypothesis Set?

As I know, there are several upper bounds on the generalization error of hypothesis set with respect to sample complexity. For hypothesis space $V$, if the learning algorithm output the set of ...
354 views

### Is there a search engine over Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning -related sites?

Sometimes it is necessary to dig into Artificial Intelligence or specifically Machine Learning problems to make a research. Common googling (in my own experience) usually doesn't help much due to a ...
192 views

### Why is it that if we assume the Church-Turing thesis to be true, then human language must be recursive if the brain is finite?

I was reading "Why Only Us" by Chomsky and Berwick, and it said: If one subscribes to the Church-Turing thesis along with the assumption that the brain is finite, then there is no way out: we ...
1k views

### Does the Halting Problem prove that true Artificial Intelligence is impossible?

The Halting Problem demonstrates that there are things that a machine can never be programmed to do. Is this proof that true Artificial Intelligence - that is, the ability for a machine to think and ...
288 views

### Adversarial Monte Carlo Tree Search Asymmetry

Monte Carlo Tree Search with UCT is praised for it's asymmetric tree growth, growing promising subtrees more than non-promising ones. But in a 2-player adversarial game, when a win at one node is a ...
98 views

### Research work on computational models for a “specific” person's behaviors

Is there active research work on creating computational models of a "specific" person's behaviors (general behaviors, emotions, actions...)? What are some references for such research? I tried google ...
2k views

### Maximizing pruned branches in an alpha-beta tree

Preliminary After doing some searches of similar questions posted here and elsewhere, i feel like this is the right place to inquire about, now let's get through some boring main notations... A ...
2k views

### Next-Word Prediction, Language Models, N-grams

I was looking into how a next-word prediction engine like swift key or XT9 can be implemented. Here's what I did. I read about n-grams here - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram and aicat.inf.ed.ac.uk/...
348 views

### Recommendation algorithms based on a set of attributes

I'm building an application which should suggest products for the users. I want to base my recommendation on different attributes, like location, weather, date, etc. Each of these attributes can have ...
308 views

### Is the halting problem claim true with the advent of AI [duplicate]

Alan Turing states that, there can't be a program that can decide if a program will ever stop. But with such advances in AI, won't computers will be able to analyze code and decide like humans on ...
2k views

### What are some problems which are easily solved by human brain but which would take more time computers?

Are there any problems which can be solved by human brain in a very less time but a computer may take a lot of time or a computer could never solve it ?
502 views

### Survey of informed search algorithms?

I'm looking for a list of informed search algorithms, also known as heuristic search algorithms. I'm aware of: best-first search Greedy best-first search A* search Are there more best-first ...
2k views

### Is there an algorithm to find the best strategy for a game?

Let, game be the state of a 2-player, turn based game actions game player -> [move] be a function that gets the state of a ...
1k views

### Why is the Shannon entropy 0.94 in this example?

Suppose I have a decision tree in which there is a label $L$ under which is the attribute $A$ as shown below. I am given that the Shannon entropy of label $L$ is $H(L) = 0.95$. I must find the ...
12k views

### Cognitive Computing vs Artificial Intelligence?

Can anyone please tell me the difference between them? A brief definition of Cognitive Computing would appreciated. Also how does cognitive computing relate to neural networks?
140 views

### Machine Learning: What program will derive the underlying algorithm in this series?

This is a machine learning question. Given this series of categorical data, what program will derive the underlying algorithm and predict what comes next in the series? Here is the series: B, BA, BB,...
887 views

### Heuristics for an Artificial Intelligence problem

Problem : Given a (one dimensional) row containing $2N$ tiles arranged in $2N + 1$ spaces. There are $N$ black tiles (B), $N$ white tiles (W), and a single empty space. The tiles are initially in an ...
151 views

### Finding Feature Representation Such That Two Samples Are Similar in Feature Space

Consider one specific useful function of our human brain: abstraction of object. Take the example of two pictures: if we are told the pictures are similar, we actually make conclusion about the ...