Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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628 views

MGU and Variable Standardization - CNF

I have been reading on converting first order logic sentences to conjunctive normal form, and then performing resolution. One of the steps of converting to CNF, is to Standardize variables: rename ...
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2answers
332 views

About the behaviour of multi-layer perceptrons

I have a multilayer perceptron. It has an input layer with two neurons, a hidden layer with an arbitrary number of neurons, and an output layer with two neurons. Given that ...
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1answer
483 views

How to tell if a Heuristic is monotonic

I've applied a Heuristic to a puzzle where I need to move all off the B's the the right of the W's. my Heuristic is the total distance of the B's from the right most W's. my initial state is (B,B,B,*,...
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2answers
649 views

Does the the undecidability of the Halting Problem eliminate the possibility of 'Hard AI'? [duplicate]

I'm defining 'Hard AI' as a human-equivalent intelligent machine, or beyond that. Contrast with 'Soft AI' the type of software that runs on your email filter for example. I've been chewing on this ...
2
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1answer
614 views

In principle, what is the relation between Artifical Intelligence and Turing machine?

I am working on my cs project about AI & Turing machines, so i know that Artifical Intelligence is meant to implement different algorithms into the machine {the computer} to solve a problem or a ...
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2answers
96 views

Being stuck and frustrated with my masters project

I'm doing a masters in CS that requires me to implement from scratch most of the neural network models and because python libraries aren't applicable to what i want. The problem is that i don't feel ...
2
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2answers
2k views

Why does an admissible heuristic mean A* is optimal?

An admissible heuristic never overestimates the cost to reach the goal. However, isn't that only the relative difference between heuristics for two different paths matter? Say we have optimal path A ...
2
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1answer
679 views

Is Q-Learning ever better than Brute Force?

I am currently learning about the Q-learning algorithm, so I therefore assume that it has some use or purpose. However I currently cannot see how it is in any way useful. In terms of complexity class, ...
2
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2answers
123 views

Does an optimal path imply the heuristic is admissible?

If we are given an A$^*$ path search with some heuristic $h$ that yields an optimal path, without knowing that the heuristic is admissible beforehand, would this imply that $h$ is admissible?
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1answer
52 views

Is Artificial General Intelligence possible with our current machine learning models? [closed]

In other words, is artificial human level intelligence not possible yet just because of limitations in processing power and amount of data required to train the models? Or we don't have the knowledge ...
2
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1answer
207 views

Recognizing Horn clauses

I am currently studying model theory and I am trying to decide if a clause is a Horn Clause. I know that a Horn Clause is a clause with at most one positive literal, but there are some clauses that it ...
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2answers
210 views

Computer Vision - Algorithm for reconstructing tilted image

Recently I've seen this very good apps https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.kingjim.shotnote&hl=en https://itunes.apple.com/JP/app/id411332997?mt=8 this apps reconstruct the image ...
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1answer
98 views

that there would be no perfect strategy for poker

In my opinion, every imperfect information game where there is the possibility of bluffing lacks a perfect (or winning) strategy, for the simple reason that knowing your opponent's strategy will let ...
2
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1answer
106 views

Is there a program that will tell you the optimal algorithm for ANY problem if the problem is decidable? [duplicate]

Is there a program that will tell you the optimal algorithm for ANY problem if the problem is decidable? If not, why not? If yes, how can such a program be realistically constructed? I would prefer ...
2
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1answer
463 views

What does the posterior probability of a variable mean in the Bayes' rule?

I have been studying Artificial Intelligence and I have noticed that the Bayes' rule allows us to infer the posterior probability if a variable. But, my question is, what does the word, or phrase, '...
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2answers
3k views

iterative lengthening search example

I am looking for an example of the "iterative lengthening search". I have searched and I was only able to find definitions like iterative lengthening search an iterative analog to uniform cost ...
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2answers
2k views

Need a practical solution for creating pattern database(5-5-5) for 15-Puzzle

I have asked this exact question on StackOverflow. I did not get the answer that I was looking for. Please read this question fully before answering. Thank You. For static pattern database(5-5-5), see ...
2
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1answer
45 views

How would one construct conjunctively local predicate of order k for checking if a shape is Convex?

I was reading Minsky's and Papert's book on perceptrons and it had the definition of conjunctively local as follow (look at the last images if its still unclear): A predicate $\psi$ is conjunctively ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Can high-order unification be applied to programming by example?

In 2007, it has been proven that high-order unification is decidable on the pattern matching case. If that is true, what is stopping someone to write an equation like: ...
2
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1answer
419 views

What kind of Neural Network (if any) could fit two sets of data points?

I have two datasets, one of animal migration patterns (collected over the course of a couple years) that consists of many points on an x, y plane (latitude, longitude), and the other of ocean surface ...
2
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1answer
597 views

Can the effective branching factor be negative?

I've implemented A* algorithm in Python, after that I calculated the effective branching factor $ B^* $ $$ T+1=1+B^*+(B^*)^2+\dots +(B^*)^L$$ where $T$ is the number of expanded nodes. My question ...
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2answers
255 views

Guessing the best choice to maximize returns

There are $N$ number of people and $X$ amount of objects with different values. Each person will choose an object and will obtain that objects value. If multiple people choose the same object then the ...
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2answers
14k views

Nim game tree + minimax

Problem : Two players have in front of them a single pile of objects, say a stack of 7 pennies. The first player divides the original stack into two stacks that must be unequal. Each player ...
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1answer
8k views

Example using Penetrance & Branching Factor in State-space Heuristic Search

I need an example for how to calculate penetrance and branching factor of the search tree in in state-space heuristic search. The definitions are as following. Penetrance $P$ is defined by $\qquad \...
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1answer
49 views

How can I treat a problem like a search problem in AI?

I'm a CS student and I'm trying to understand the searching algorithms used in AI. My problem is that I don't really understand how to treat a problem like a search problem. I don't know which would ...
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2answers
55 views

Need recursive version of Conflict based backjumping

I am implementing conflict directed Backjumping algorithm of prosser in java. But, the algorithm is iterative approach. How can it be built with recursive approach? In AIMA they give the recursive ...
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1answer
115 views

Why is IDA$^*$ faster than A$^*$? Why does IDA$^*$ visit more nodes than A$^*$?

I used IDA$^*$ for optimally solving the 8-puzzle and my friends used A$^*$ for it too (with same manhattan distance heuristic). I calculated the average running time and number of nodes of my ...
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1answer
50 views

Decision Tree Learning Deviation - Russell and Norvig

I am working through the Russell and Norvig AI book and came across the following on the top of page 706. The section concerns Decision Tree pruning and testing a given attribute against the null ...
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1answer
451 views

What can't be done with a neural network

This reference from the german wikipedia article on neural networks states: There are also many other important problems that are so difficult that a neural network will be unable to learn them ...
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1answer
2k views

Beam size is a parameter in some RNNs like TensorFlow's Magenta. What is beam size?

Magenta's melody_rnn_generate method includes a parameter beam_size. What is it and how does affect the melody?
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1answer
240 views

In Lbest PSO, how is the local best position in a neighbourhood defined?

I am implementing a couple of PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithms, and I got stuck on a bit of detail which I could not clearly determine from the papers I have read. In lbest PSO, for each ...
2
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1answer
46 views

How to model a set of categorical values in the input of a neural network

One of the inputs to my neural network is a set. I have a set $S = \{s_0, s_1, ..., s_n\}$ in which all values $s_i$ are constant. An example of such a set could be the set of French wines (...
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1answer
120 views

What Exactly is “Improvement” in Seed AI?

From LessWrongWiki, a seed AI [I]mproves itself by recursively rewriting its own source code without human intervention. Some would even say this could bring about an Intelligence Explosion. Many ...
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1answer
137 views

What is a good example to illustrate the difference between isomorphic and homomorphic representations?

I am learning about "knowledge representation" in my intro to AI course and one of the key ideas has to do with isomorphic vs homomorphic representations. The examples I find when I google around are ...
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1answer
793 views

Difference between heuristic-based searching and optimal path searching

I'm currently studying for an AI computer-science course. One thing is difficult for me to grasp and somewhat vaguely explained in my course-material: I understand that with search-methods like e.g. ...
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1answer
449 views

Perceptron learning rule past exam question

I'm struggling to solve this past paper question and my lecturer is being less than helpful. The question is: Apply the perceptron learning rule to update the current weight vector (0.1, 0.3) when ...
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1answer
1k views

Differences between linear/nonlinear vs. deterministic/nondeterministic neural nets

When speaking of neural networks, I don't get the difference between nonlinear and non-deterministic. Basically, both say that the output of something is not directly correlated to the input? Hope ...
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1answer
2k views

Artificial intelligence - bridge and torch problem

I am doing a artificial intelligence course as part of my computer science degree. I am stuck on a question about searching. The question is a version of the Bridge and torch problem. Five people ...
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1answer
616 views

first order logic resolution unification

Assuming I have shown part of the knowledge base in the clausal format: [1] p1(banana). [2] not p1(X) or p2(Y). [3] p1(X) or not p3(F). ... and more rules. ...
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2answers
30 views

Neural network game players and incremental updates

Neural networks in recent years have been successfully used for gameplaying. A difference between games and e.g. image processing is that the game boards get updated incrementally. Do any neural ...
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1answer
38 views

How are image processing and computer vision related to artificial intelligence.?

We have often heard both terms image processing and computer vision in AI sessions But i am confused, how they both are related to artificial intelligence?
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1answer
63 views

Understanding Alpha Beta Pruning: Why do we ignore the values of a unsearched tree after the first leaf, can they not include acceptable values too?

So this is my question. I am trying to understand this part of the book: At d) why do we stop looking at the other nodes in that branch? There could be a acceptable value next to the 2? I am just ...
2
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1answer
46 views

The task of recognizing game units in the screenshot

I'm new to computer vision and I want to solve the task of recognizing the game units of the game Clash Royale in the screenshot. Briefly, there are about 70 different types of gaming units belonging ...
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2answers
1k views

What kind of pattern recognition algorithm would Facebook use to detect suicidal users?

Facebook announced that it would employ a machine learning "reporting process using pattern recognition in posts previously reported for suicide" (https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2017/03/building-a-safer-...
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1answer
87 views

What determines the number of inputs and outputs when initialising weights in a convolutional neural network?

Following Deep MNIST for Experts tutorial on Tensorflow, I realize I don't understand where the choice of numbers comes from when initializing weights. In the tutorial, they first show the below ...
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1answer
31 views

how to approximate a very complex optimal policy when the distance function is unknown

A policy $P$ is defined as a set of parameters. We want to know the optimal policy $O$, which certainly exists but unfortunately unknown. $D(P)$ shows how far $P$ is from $O$. The function $D$ itself ...
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1answer
977 views

Semantic natural language processing - from texts to logical expressions? Universal knowledge base?

My question is - is there a semantic natural language processing that tries to understand the meaning of the texts and that tries to derive the consequences of the understood meaning? Is there a ...
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1answer
305 views

Convergence of Markov model

I was learning Hidden Markov model, and encountered this theory about convergence of Markov model. For example, consider a weather model, where on a first-day probability of weather being sunny was 0....
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1answer
511 views

decidability of artificial intelligence

Not sure whether this is the correct place to post the question. some of my terms might not accurate. currently AI is used for classification, inference, and so forth, is AI problem decidable? for ...
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1answer
2k views

Understanding the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno Algorithm to Select Weights for Neural Nets

I am trying to train and implement a Neural Network. I was reading a few articles, learning about their principles and the math that goes behind them. However, while I was trying to understand the ...

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