Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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122 views

Can cognitive architectures (CLARION, SOAR, ACT-R) be used for creative mathematical reasoning?

Can cognitive architectures (CLARION, SOAR, ACT-R, others) be used for creative mathematical reasoning? As far as I understand, then it is the best to encode formal mathematical knowledge in the ...
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465 views

What are the inputs to an LSTM for Slot Filling Task

I am confused on the inputs of a Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) for the slot filling task in Spoken Language Understanding. Before I worked on this, I implemented a language model with a Recurrent ...
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264 views

The meaning of ontology in computer science

I am reading a paper and ran into this word Ontology-based, What does it really mean? I did searching about it but still ambiguous to me, can someone elaborate this ...
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94 views

Problem understanding Nilsson's general graph search and A* algorithm

I'm reading several books that present A* algorithm. More precisely, I'm Nilsson's "Artificial Intelligence a New Synthesis" and a textbook on problems of artificial intelligence which is written in ...
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160 views

Posterior of a DP in a Dirichlet process mixture model

Draws from a Dirichlet process (DP) are discrete, and exhibit clustering behaviour. Dirichlet Processes The Dirichlet Process ($DP$) is a stochastic process used in Bayesian nonparametric modelling....
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60 views

Inconsistent results with Q-learning

I'm running a q-learning agent in tic tac toe against a minimax agent and measuring the tie rate (since you can never win against minimax). When I run 10,000 training games, I've found that there seem ...
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82 views

KDD Machine Learning using K-NN Algorithm Classification Problem

I'm trying to solve a classification problem from the KDD cup archive of 2004. Details can be found here: KDD 2004 Archive I'm only dong the particle physics part. The description of dataset is as ...
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1answer
348 views

Expectation Maximization Algorithm for simple naive Bayesian network

I am trying to understand the following network A has two children - B & C (aka common cause) All the variables are binary and can be either 0 or 1. In data values are missing only for some ...
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50 views

what is the best practice for turing test

I'm working on a AI project which generates poems in Turkish language like this project: https://github.com/schollz/poetry-generator It's a successful project but it's a template based poem generator....
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404 views

How to select the maximum weight value for a bias node in a neural network?

I'm programming a neural network. I know that I should initialize the network by picking random weights. How do I pick a random weight for the connections to bias nodes? What distribution should I ...
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486 views

What is the difference between “objective function”, “error function”, “criterion function” and “cost function” in the context of neural networks?

The title says it all: I have seen three functions so far, that seem to be the same / similar: error function criterion function cost function objective function I am currently working on ...
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2k views

Complexity of Alpha-Beta pruning with optimal move ordering

I originally read that Alpha-Beta pruning has time complexity of $O(b\ ^{m/2}\ )$ with perfect ordering (where b = branching factor, m = maximum ply depth) but have recently come across claims that ...
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63 views

How does this star1 variation work? (star1 is a stochastic (dice) algorithm for artificial intelligence in adversarial games)

I don't understand how the star1 variation mentioned in the paper is Sparse Sampling for Adversarial different than the usual star1 algorithm? (Taken from the bottom of page 7). This variant can be ...
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1answer
1k views

Understanding Decision Stump in Adaboost

I am trying to understand how Adaboost works, and many of the tutorials online involve the use of a decision tree stump. For example, http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~thad/6601-gradAI-fall2013/boosting.pdf ...
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5answers
1k views

What would show a human mind is/is not reducible to a Turing machine?

In computer science it is often assumed that a human mind can be reduced to a Turing machine. This is the assumption that underlies the field of artificial intelligence. However, it is an assumption,...
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561 views

Does the the undecidability of the Halting Problem eliminate the possibility of 'Hard AI'? [duplicate]

I'm defining 'Hard AI' as a human-equivalent intelligent machine, or beyond that. Contrast with 'Soft AI' the type of software that runs on your email filter for example. I've been chewing on this ...
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3answers
18k views

Simple examples of Artificial Intelligence [closed]

I am having trouble understanding the concept of AI. Is AI just a software that uses Probability, Linear Algebra and some advanced Mathematics to make independent decision ? Please give me some ...
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2answers
2k views

Machine learning algorithm(s) for recognizing simple graph patterns

I generate some simple graphs based on usage stats of a website, and they may look like these: I call the 'pattern' on the left 'convergence', and the 'pattern' on the right 'divergence'. The terms '...
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3answers
551 views

Over-fitting Always Occurs?

i get stuck in one sentence in machine learning. i read tom Mitchel book on ML, and some other materials. if we have small training set, always over-fit can occurs? or is likely to occurs? i read ...
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1answer
63 views

Artificial intelligence and undecidibility

Can artificial intelligence solve problems like Post correspondence problem?
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1answer
414 views

How are Bayesian Nets, Hidden Markov Chains, Conditional Random Fields and Neural Nets related?

I am having an AI exam in two weeks, and I am still figuring out certain concepts and ideas, related to Bayesian Nets, Hidden Markov Chains, Conditional Random Fields and Neural Nets (yes it is all ...
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2answers
5k views

What's the difference between a rule based system and an artificial neural network?

I'm currently doing some reading into AI and up to this point couldn't find a satisfying answer to this question: what's the difference between a rule based system and an artificial neural network? ...
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2answers
58 views

Choosing heuristic for A* algorithm where cost is less than absolute distance

Looking for information on choosing a heuristic for instances where the cost of traversing an edge can be less than one. For example, say movement is allowed in the cardinal directions. Should all ...
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1answer
104 views

Resolution Algorithm - No new clauses

The standard resolution algorithm returns false if no new clauses are added. I know that if $KB \land \neg a \implies []$, it returns true by proof by contradiction, but how can I understand the ...
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1answer
880 views

Heuristics for the $n$-puzzle

An admissible heuristic for an n-puzzle is the Manhattan distance. Now if the cost of a transition is equal to the number of the piece that is moved, is it true that the Manhattan distance is still an ...
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2answers
1k views

Skolem constant in existential instantiation for first order logic

For any sentence $\alpha$, variable $v$, and constant symbol $k$ that does NOT appear elsewhere in KB: $$\dfrac{\exists \nu. \alpha}{\mathsf{subst}(\{ \nu / k \},\alpha)}.$$ E.g., $∃x. \mathrm{Crown}(...
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1answer
86 views

Information about ε-greedy algorithms

I'm working on a paper that uses ε-greedy algorithms for choosing episodes of a sarsa q-learning algorithms. I searched for algorithm but couldn't get so much. Can you please give me the algorithms ...
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1answer
285 views

Why do heuristic functions only approximate the real value of the cost?

As stated in the title I'm wondering why do heuristic functions only approximate the real value of the cost? I understand it can never overestimate, but can it ensure the cost is accurate?
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2answers
320 views

How to properly solve this Hidden Markov Model problem?

I got a an exercise problem which should be seen as a HMM scenario and argument some statements. However I'm quite confused about how to properly solve and argument my solutions. Problem tells: ...
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3answers
1k views

Are neural networks dynamical systems?

Dynamical systems are those whose evolution can be described by a rule, evolves with time and is deterministic. In this context can I say that Neural networks have a rule of evolution which is the ...
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1answer
655 views

How to solve this Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) question?

These are 5 action descriptions with conditional effects: Action(A, Precond:{X}, Effect:{when P : ~X), Z}) Action(B, Precond:{Y}, Effect:{when Z : ~P), ~Y,~Z,X}) Action(C, Precond:{~Z}, ...
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2answers
195 views

Computer Vision - Algorithm for reconstructing tilted image

Recently I've seen this very good apps https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.kingjim.shotnote&hl=en https://itunes.apple.com/JP/app/id411332997?mt=8 this apps reconstruct the image ...
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1answer
407 views

What factors must one consider choosing an NN structure?

Suppose we have a classification problem and we wish to solve the problem by Neural Network. What factors must one consider choosing an NN structure? e.g Feed Forward, Recurrent and other available ...
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2answers
1k views

Need a practical solution for creating pattern database(5-5-5) for 15-Puzzle

I have asked this exact question on StackOverflow. I did not get the answer that I was looking for. Please read this question fully before answering. Thank You. For static pattern database(5-5-5), see ...
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1answer
1k views

How to interpret plot of cost function in gradient descend algorithm?

I have a data set to which I want to apply logistic regression. I set my cost function to be $J(\theta) = -\frac{1}{m} [\sum\limits_{i=1}^{m} y^{(i)} log{(h_\theta \cdot x^{(i)})} + (1-y^{(i)}) log(...
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1answer
119 views

Generating hard puzzles for a backtracking snake

Let $M$ be a matrix of height $h$ and width $w$. Each entry of $M$ is an integer. There is a snake that starts from the "left side" of $M$, and its goal is to reach the "right side" of $M$. To get ...
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1answer
1k views

How to decribe an action with STRIPS?

The state space is decribed with 3 boolean variables $p,q$ and $r$ (so we have 8 states total). We have an action, let's say $a$. Action $a$ can be executed when $p=\text{False}$ and $q=\text{True}$ ...
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2answers
302 views

Pairwise comparisons with confidence

There is a lot of information available on the subject of Pairwise Comparisons but I haven't found any guidance on how to optimize pair measurements that have confidence values attached to them. ...
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1answer
51 views

Two Minimax AIs playing against each other

I am trying to have my Minimax AI chess players play against each other. I was a bit confused about an implementation detail. Let's call black my first minimax AI ...
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3answers
37 views

How do I check if two if-stmt blocks are the same?

Consider the following two snipets of code: If a >= 5: If b == 0: .... Else: .... Else if a <= 5: .... ...
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1answer
312 views

If h(n) is a perfect heuristic (that is, h(n) = h*(n)), then does it imply that A* will always take linear time complexity?

That is, if h(n) = h*(n), then A* only expands nodes that lie on an optimal path to the goal. But does this imply that A* will always take a linear time in the solution length to find an optimal ...
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1answer
865 views

Can CNN be used for numeric data

I have a numpy array of shape N_Samples x 360, as an example, consider the following: ...
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1answer
22 views

Closed (visited) list in state-space search - How do I make it efficient?

As part of an assignment for an AI class that I'm taking, I'm need to solve a puzzle on a 4x4 grid using breadth-first search (each element can take on 12 different values). There is a maximum of 4 ...
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1answer
39 views

Storing nodes in state space search

I'm taking an introductory course in AI and we've been given the assignment to solve a puzzle using different search algorithms on a state space (BFS, DFS etc). I understand the theory and everything, ...
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1answer
135 views

General Intelligence Utility Function

I was watching the AI Stop Button Problem from Computerphile, and was very confused on the difference between two approaches. Background: there is a barebones general intelligence running in the form ...
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1answer
712 views

Representation of 8-Puzzle for (A*) Search Algorithm in C

I am trying to complete CS50's hacker edition pset3, where you have to make a program that will solve the game of eight or fifteen from its current state, this must be written in C. https://en....
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1answer
535 views

how can i know if a First order logic sentences is valid or unsatisfiable or neither?

i have trouble with understand this type of questions , i know how i can determine if the sentences is valid or unsatisfiable in Propositional logic , but in FOL i can't for example , i have the ...
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247 views

Program interpretation for static analysis

Are there any implementations, or even academic work, regarding an application capable of looking at code and inferring what the code actually intends to do? For example, we give it a program that ...
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1answer
260 views

How do neural networks learn concepts?

I've been learning neural networks and some back propagation stuff, and I heard about google's Tensorflow and how it could learn things like how to carry on conversations. It got me thinking about how ...
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1answer
41 views

Number of states in classical planning

With reference to the Heuristics section of Classical planning in Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Russell and Norvig, there is a question: consider an air cargo problem with 10 airports,...