Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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27
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1answer
28k views

Which machine learning algorithms can be used for time series forecasts?

Currently I am playing around with time series forecasts (specifically for Forex). I have seen some scientific papers about echo state networks which are applied to Forex forecast. Are there other ...
20
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3answers
19k views

When should I learn artificial intelligence? [closed]

Straight to the point: I would really like to learn AI. But I want some advice from experienced CS guys as to when I should jump into Artificial Intelligence. What prerequisites are needed in order ...
18
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3answers
2k views

How to use Artificial Intelligence in Computer Chess

In some (historical) papers, chess has been referred to as the drosophila of artificial intelligence. While I suppose that in current research, the mere application of a search algorithm is at best ...
17
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4answers
5k views

Did 'Eugene Goostman' really pass the Turing test?

It is being said that 'Eugene Goostman', a computer programme developed to simulate a 13-year-old boy, managed to convince 33 per cent of the judges that it was human, and thus passed the Turing Test. ...
16
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2answers
27k views

How does an admissible heuristic ensure an optimal solution?

When using A* (or any other best path finding algorithm), we say that the heuristic used should be admissible, that is, it should never overestimate the actual solution path's length (or moves). How ...
16
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2answers
211 views

A scoring approach to computer opponents that needs balancing

This question is about an approach to computer opponents that I have created and are either currently being used, or are planned to be used, in several computer games. Background Last year, when ...
14
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2answers
14k views

Initial temperature in simulated annealing algorithm

I've done some testing of different initial temperatures in my simulating annealing algorithm and noticed the starting temperature has an affect on the performance of the algorithm. Is there any way ...
14
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2answers
763 views

What are the state-of-the-art algorithms for pathfinding on a continuous map of the Earth?

Suppose I have got a solar-powered autonomous surface vessel somewhere in the fjords of Norway, supplied with a fairly recent set of maps, a GPS receiver, and no means of downlinking detailed commands ...
14
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4answers
3k views

How to devise an algorithm that suggests feasible cooking recipes?

I once had a veteran in my course that created an algorithm that would suggest cooking recipes. At first, all sort of crazy recipes would come out. Then, she would train the cooking algorithm with ...
12
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2answers
10k views

How to encode date as input in neural network?

I am using neural networks to predict a time series. The question I'm facing now is how do I encode date/time/serial no. of each input set as an input to the neural network? Should I use 1 of C ...
11
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1answer
8k views

Reachable state space of an 8-puzzle

I've just began studying Artificial Intelligence and am wondering why the reachable state space of an 8-puzzle is $9!/2$. I see that the number of permutations of the tiles is $9!$ but it is not ...
11
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2answers
184 views

Non-Parametric Methods Like K-Nearest-Neighbours in High Dimensional Feature Space

The main idea of k-Nearest-Neighbour takes into account the $k$ nearest points and decides the classification of the data by majority vote. If so, then it should not have problems in higher ...
11
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3answers
1k views

How Do Common Pathfinding Algorithms Compare To Human Process

This might border on computational cognitive science, but I am curious as to how the process followed by common pathfinding algorithms (such as A*) compares to the process humans use in different ...
11
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1answer
213 views

Google DeepDream Elaborated

I've seen a few questions on this site about Deep Dream, however none of them seem to actually speak as to what DeepDream is doing, specifically. As far as I've gathered, they seem to have changed the ...
10
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2answers
474 views

Optimal myopic maze solver

I was fooling around with Google Blocky's Maze demo, and remembered the old rule that if you want to solve a maze, just keep your left hand to the wall. This works for any simple-connected maze and ...
10
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1answer
1k views

How many layers should a neural network have?

Are there any advantages of having more than 2 hidden layers in a Neural Network? I've seen some places that recommend it, others prove that there is no advantage. Which one is right?
10
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1answer
6k views

The meaning of discount factor on reinforcement learning

After reading of the google deepmind achievements on Atari's games, I am trying to understand the q-learning and q-networks, but I am little bit confused. The confusion arise in the concept of the ...
9
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2answers
882 views

What mathematics can be interesting for these CS areas?

For my CS degree I have had most of the "standard" mathematical background: Calculus: differential, integral, complex numbers Algebra: pretty much the concepts up until fields. Number Theory: XGCD ...
9
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1answer
5k views

Could an artificial neural network algorithm be expressed in terms of map-reduce operations?

Could an artificial neural network algorithm be expressed in terms of map-reduce operations? I am also interested more generally in methods of parallelization as applied to ANNs and their application ...
9
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3answers
3k views

Kernelization trick, for neural networks

I've been learning about neural networks and SVMs. The tutorials I've read have emphasized how important kernelization is, for SVMs. Without a kernel function, SVMs are just a linear classifier. ...
9
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1answer
2k views

Why are weights of Neural Networks initialized with random numbers?

Why are neural networks initial weights initialized as random numbers? I had read somewhere that this is done to "break the symmetry" and this makes the neural network learn faster. How does breaking ...
9
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2answers
13k views

What is Least-Constraining-Value?

In constraint satisfaction problems, heuristics can be used to improve the performance of a bactracking solver. Three commonly given heuristics for simple backtracking solvers are: Minimum-remaining-...
8
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1answer
547 views

Does Church-Turing thesis also apply to artificial intelligence?

By Church-Turing's thesis, it is impossible to design an algorithm to decide the halting problem. Does the word algorithm in this context include artificial intelligence or not, that is, does ...
8
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5answers
3k views

What are the practical uses of ontologies?

I have read many papers and books about ontologies and I am trying to figure out that how they are used in a real project? For example how the ontology for a soccer player robot can be defined and ...
8
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1answer
5k views

Neural network diverging instead of converging

I have implemented a neural network (using CUDA) with 2 layers. (2 Neurons per layer). I'm trying to make it learn 2 simple quadratic polynomial functions using backpropagation. But instead of ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Is there a simple way of calculating perceptron weights based on a classification graph?

I am studying for an AI exam and I'm looking for a better way of solving the following problem: Graph shows a classification problem in the unit square $[0,1]^2$, where Class A is denoted by the ...
8
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1answer
291 views

The essential difference between spiking neural networks and earlier generation ANN's

I have been studying Spiking Neural Networks online from various papers, mainly Maass (1997). I am not entirely sure I understand what makes SNN's pulse-code in contrast to earlier ANNs which are ...
7
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1answer
3k views

Why can't we solve the Halting Problem by using Artificial Intelligence? [duplicate]

Yesterday I was reading about Computability and they mention the Halting Problem. It got stuck in mind all day until I remember that some weeks ago, when learning Java, the IDE (Netbeans) show me a ...
7
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1answer
1k views

In what ways can we distinguish between a human and bot behavior?

Updated based on comments: In what ways can we distinguish a human being doing certain activities online and a bot programmed to do similar activities, say checking email, downloading some music ...
7
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1answer
630 views

Alpha-Beta Pruning with simultaneous moves?

I have a game I'm building some ai for that has 2 players making simultaneous moves. In this game there is exactly one move where, if they both make it at the same time, the outcome is different than ...
7
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1answer
153 views

Is there any published paper about automated planning software used in the ESA Rosetta mission?

The Rosetta spacecraft has reached a comet in August 2014 and sent a lander on its surface. It was one of the greatest science news of the year. Automated Planning and Scheduling techniques are ...
7
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3answers
1k views

Exploring and interpolating a function using machine-learning?

Which general machine-learning methods are there that try to "learn" or interpolate a smooth multivariate function and which get to actually choose the points at which the function is evaluated during ...
7
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1answer
3k views

Difference between decision tree and rule based reasoner

I am new to this topic, and in some scientific papers I've been reading about prediction in sports I encountered the term rule based reasoner. Is it this term the same as a semantic reasoner( where ...
7
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1answer
677 views

Intuitive description for training of LSTM (with forget gate/peephole)?

I am a CS undergraduate (but I don't know much about AI though, did not take any courses on it, and definitely nothing about NN until recently) who is about to do a school project in AI, so I pick a ...
6
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2answers
7k views

Is using a more informed heuristic guaranteed to expand fewer nodes of the search space?

I'm reading through the RMIT course notes on state space search. Consider a state space $S$, a set of nodes in which we look for an element having a certain property. A heuristic function $h:S\to\...
6
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3answers
6k views

Can someone clarify this unification algorithm?

I've been having trouble understanding a unification algorithm for first order logic, as I don't know what a compound expression is. I googled it, but found nothing relevant. I also don't know what a ...
6
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2answers
3k views

Local Search vs Classical Search

I have some questions regarding local search / optimization as explained in chapter 4 of the book : http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/ In classical search (Chap 3), the search starts from an initial node, ...
6
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1answer
1k views

What is the difference between Cased-based Reasoning and Rule-based reasoning?

As stated here, Rule-based Reasoning systems are considered to be "old style" AI that uses rules prepared by humans - as opposed to Neural Networks where machine recognizes pattern i.e. acquires new ...
6
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3answers
2k views

Difference between weak and strong AI

I'm trying to understand the difference between weak and strong AI. For an example, let's say we would pass the turing test - would it show strong AI or weak AI then? I don't believe that this is ...
5
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3answers
862 views

Is it possible to implement a Neural Network using a graph data structure?

I'm trying to implement a feedforward neural network using a graph. The thing is: I haven't found any example in which is used a graph data structure. So far the examples I've found used arrays. Can ...
5
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2answers
986 views

How is a Turing Test defined?

Turing Test definition taken from wikipedia: The Turing test is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human. In the ...
5
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1answer
799 views

Why can the state space of the 15 puzzle be divided into two separate parts?

I am trying to understand the proof here of why the state space in 15 puzzle is divided into two separate parts, but the explanation is complicated for me. Could someone please explain it in simpler ...
5
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3answers
16k views

When would best first search be worse than breadth first search?

I am studying best first search as it compares to BFS (breadth-first search) and DFS (depth-first search), but I don't know when BFS is better than best-first search. So, my question is When would ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Bidirectional Dijkstra vs Dijkstra

Are there any kind of graphs where Bidirectional Dijkstra would expand more than Dijkstra? I tried to come up with an argument like this: Let node $n$ be expanded by Bidirectional Dijkstra. Now ...
5
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1answer
195 views

Solving problems related to Marginal Contribution Nets

So, I encoutered this problem in examination: Consider the following marginal contribution net: $\{a \wedge b\} \to 5$ $\{b\} \to 2$ $\{c\} \to 4$ $\{b \wedge \neg c\} \to −2$ ...
5
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1answer
485 views

How did the Logic Theorist prove the Pons Asinorum?

I was reading about the Logic Theorist proving many of the Whitehead and Russell's Principia's theorems. However, I cannot find any technical explanation on how the program proved those theorems and ...
5
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1answer
2k views

What's the input to the decoder in a sequence to sequence autoencoder?

What's the input to the decoder part of a sequence to sequence autoencoder? I've seen certain examples of such an autoencoder (using LSTM's more often than not) but am still unclear. For example, ...
5
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1answer
3k views

Are expert systems outdated, what are better alternatives to them, if any?

I need to link facts to actions through rules. If a person bought soup 10 times and he is coming at midday every day, then the system should link the fact that the person bought soup so many times, ...
5
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3answers
14k views

Artificial Intelligence: Condition for BFS being optimal

It is said in the book Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach for finding a solution on a tree using BFS that: breadth-first search is optimal if the path cost is a nondecreasing function of ...
5
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1answer
233 views

Something I don't understand about Genetic Algorithms

I've had a bit of experience programming Neural networks but I am fairly new with genetic algorithms (I'm only 17). I have a major issue that I can't understand. If a child get's one chromatid from ...