Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Questions about design and properties of agents that act in a dynamic environment and make decisions towards some goal without user control.

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How to use Artificial Intelligence in Computer Chess

In some (historical) papers, chess has been referred to as the drosophila of artificial intelligence. While I suppose that in current research, the mere application of a search algorithm is at best ...
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1answer
623 views

If h(n) is a perfect heuristic (that is, h(n) = h*(n)), then does it imply that A* will always take linear time complexity?

That is, if h(n) = h*(n), then A* only expands nodes that lie on an optimal path to the goal. But does this imply that A* will always take a linear time in the solution length to find an optimal ...
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1answer
716 views

What is a “closed set” in context of AI? How is it different from an open set or a frontier?

I am reading some properties on the A* search algorithm on Wikipedia, specifically: "If the heuristic function h is admissible, meaning that it never overestimates the actual minimal cost of reaching ...
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1answer
141 views

Viable use of genetic algorithms to train neural nets in a poker bot?

  I am designing a bot to play Texas Hold'Em Poker on tables of up to ten players, and the design includes a few feed forward neural networks (FFNN). These neural nets each have 8 to 12 ...
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1answer
31 views

Closed (visited) list in state-space search - How do I make it efficient?

As part of an assignment for an AI class that I'm taking, I'm need to solve a puzzle on a 4x4 grid using breadth-first search (each element can take on 12 different values). There is a maximum of 4 ...
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1answer
44 views

Storing nodes in state space search

I'm taking an introductory course in AI and we've been given the assignment to solve a puzzle using different search algorithms on a state space (BFS, DFS etc). I understand the theory and everything, ...
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0answers
749 views

Is Chinese Checkers a solved game

Is there a machine or algorithm available to solve the board game "Chinese checkers"? If there is please let me know about relevant material. I have already searched over internet unfortunately i am ...
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1answer
451 views

What can't be done with a neural network

This reference from the german wikipedia article on neural networks states: There are also many other important problems that are so difficult that a neural network will be unable to learn them ...
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1answer
154 views

How to determine convergence when using Q-learning?

I'm using Q-Learning to find the values of states in on a gameboard. For example, something like: ...
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0answers
220 views

Prove that a convex combination of admissible heuristics is admissible

I got this question that's been troubling me for some time. If $h_1$ and $h_2$ are admissible heuristic functions, prove that $h_3 = (c-1)\,h_1 + c\,h_2$, $0 < c < 1$, is also an admissible ...
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1answer
463 views

What does the posterior probability of a variable mean in the Bayes' rule?

I have been studying Artificial Intelligence and I have noticed that the Bayes' rule allows us to infer the posterior probability if a variable. But, my question is, what does the word, or phrase, '...
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57 views

Is one of the Advantages of AI symbolic systems the fact they are good at abstraction and modularity according to Minsky and Papert?

I was reading Perceptron's by Minsky's and Papert's book and there is a part where they discuss symbolic systems and one part of it says: Symbolic systems yield gains of their own...Above all else ...
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1answer
112 views

Are genetic algorithms an effective way to train neural networks?

It seems to me that genetic algorithms would be an ideal way to train neural networks so that they come to have the right weights, since they are especially good at escaping local minima, and ...
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2answers
1k views

What kind of pattern recognition algorithm would Facebook use to detect suicidal users?

Facebook announced that it would employ a machine learning "reporting process using pattern recognition in posts previously reported for suicide" (https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2017/03/building-a-safer-...
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1answer
209 views

max, min gradient and other terms in Neural Network

This link contains a demo that trains a Convolutional Neural Network on the MNIST digits dataset in browser. I am not getting below terms- 1. max, min gradient in each layer. 2.max, min activation ...
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1answer
262 views

What is branch factor for beam search in RNNs like TensorFlow's Magenta?

TensorFlow's Magenta melody generation module has a parameter for branch_factor1. What is it?
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1answer
2k views

Beam size is a parameter in some RNNs like TensorFlow's Magenta. What is beam size?

Magenta's melody_rnn_generate method includes a parameter beam_size. What is it and how does affect the melody?
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1answer
795 views

Extracting Boolean Function using Machine Learning

How can machine learning help extract a Boolean relationship in a given binary input-output data set? Let us assume that the given data set is exhaustive - ie. it cover all possible input ...
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1answer
740 views

Dyna-Q in non-deterministic domains

I've implemented the Dyna-Q reinforcement learning algorithm and it works perfectly on a discrete deterministic environment, the cliff. However, when applying it to a continuous environment (mountain ...
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1answer
229 views

Use machine learning algorithms data structure to store information (memory)

DISCLAIMER : I'm pretty new to machine learning field, so forgive me if my questions are somehow naive ... I already searched on Internet about this topic and find nothing interesting so I am ...
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0answers
530 views

Tuning the parameters of Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

To tune the parameters of Particle swarm optimization (PSO), there are two methods offline and online. In offline manner, the meta-optimization is used to tune the parameters of PSO by using another ...
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2answers
8k views

Is using a more informed heuristic guaranteed to expand fewer nodes of the search space?

I'm reading through the RMIT course notes on state space search. Consider a state space $S$, a set of nodes in which we look for an element having a certain property. A heuristic function $h:S\to\...
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32 views

Maximum Ratio of White/Black pixels in an Edge Map

Is there a maximum possible ratio of white/black pixels in an edge map? In my theoretical consideration all areas in an image which have the same intensity are black and only the edges are white. ...
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1answer
2k views

How to verify that a heuristic is consistent?

A heuristic function is said to be consistent, or monotone, if its estimate is always less than or equal to the estimated distance from any neighboring vertex to the goal, plus the step cost of ...
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0answers
37 views

Outline detection from patterns in a list of textual articles

Are there NLP algorithms dealing with detecting the repeating patterns in a a list of texts from which a topic keywords and other associative keywords can be derived? I will show it as an example: ...
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1answer
219 views

Is there an Algorithm that can code itself?

Suppose there is algorithm that has a strong NLP module. Could it use the NLP module to read text books such as http://www.amazon.in/Artificial-Intelligence-Modern-Approach-Prentice/dp/0136042597 in ...
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2answers
39 views

how to express the performance of a policy in policy parameters

Suppose a leauge of tic-tac-toe playing agents. As the league proceeds, the bad players are kicked out, and better players come in. The problem resides on how to at least approximate the better player....
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1answer
204 views

Why is it that if we assume the Church-Turing thesis to be true, then human language must be recursive if the brain is finite?

I was reading "Why Only Us" by Chomsky and Berwick, and it said: If one subscribes to the Church-Turing thesis along with the assumption that the brain is finite, then there is no way out: we ...
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0answers
140 views

Can cognitive architectures (CLARION, SOAR, ACT-R) be used for creative mathematical reasoning?

Can cognitive architectures (CLARION, SOAR, ACT-R, others) be used for creative mathematical reasoning? As far as I understand, then it is the best to encode formal mathematical knowledge in the ...
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0answers
160 views

Proof that Dempster-Shafer Normalised rule is Associative

Hint: I know it is associative and I just need a proof: (m1 ⊕ m2 ) ⊕ m3 = m1 ⊕ (m2 ⊕ m3) that will show that the operation "⊕" is associative. Thank you in advance! operation "x" in the image is ...
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1answer
198 views

does every graph have a complete, preferred, stable and grounded extension?

I was looking at graph extensions in argumentation theory and was wondering, which of those extensions does every graph have? and which of those only some graphs have? and is there a proof for each? ...
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38 views

Multiple Weighted Hyerplanes to Classify XOR

I learned in class that perceptrons cannot simulate the XOR operation. My professor told me that one fix was to left the points onto a higher dimensional space. That is pretty obvious, you just use ...
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0answers
259 views

Propositional logic in an SMA* algorithm

I'm trying to implement an SMA* graph search algorithm that I found in a paper here(Rong Zhou, Eric A. Hansen: Memory-Bounded A* Graph Search. FLAIRS-02 Proceedings 203-209) and I would like to ...
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0answers
99 views

Combining Ontology and Relational Databases in Question Answering system

I'm introducing to the Natural Language Processing field and it's application. I'm planning to build a question answering system for a project, but some approaches are making me a bit confuse about ...
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1answer
1k views

How to interpret plot of cost function in gradient descend algorithm?

I have a data set to which I want to apply logistic regression. I set my cost function to be $J(\theta) = -\frac{1}{m} [\sum\limits_{i=1}^{m} y^{(i)} log{(h_\theta \cdot x^{(i)})} + (1-y^{(i)}) log(...
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2answers
322 views

Is the halting problem claim true with the advent of AI [duplicate]

Alan Turing states that, there can't be a program that can decide if a program will ever stop. But with such advances in AI, won't computers will be able to analyze code and decide like humans on ...
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1answer
2k views

What's the input to the decoder in a sequence to sequence autoencoder?

What's the input to the decoder part of a sequence to sequence autoencoder? I've seen certain examples of such an autoencoder (using LSTM's more often than not) but am still unclear. For example, ...
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0answers
44 views

is-child-of, is-instance-of as intensional and extensional inheritance relation - is object-oriented modelling an great oversimplification?

I am trying to build knowledge base in OpenCog cognitive architecture (http://wiki.opencog.org/w/The_Open_Cognition_Project) and I see that OpenCog lacks usual means to express notions of object-...
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0answers
3k views

Complexity of Alpha-Beta pruning with optimal move ordering

I originally read that Alpha-Beta pruning has time complexity of $O(b\ ^{m/2}\ )$ with perfect ordering (where b = branching factor, m = maximum ply depth) but have recently come across claims that ...
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1answer
823 views

How are the 1s and 0s derived by the minimax algorithm for the game called “nim”?

I'm having trouble figuring out why the 1s and 0s are where they are in this game tree for the game Nim: There is a statement in the book that explains the numbers but it's still not clear to me, In ...
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1answer
483 views

How to tell if a Heuristic is monotonic

I've applied a Heuristic to a puzzle where I need to move all off the B's the the right of the W's. my Heuristic is the total distance of the B's from the right most W's. my initial state is (B,B,B,*,...
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1answer
167 views

General Intelligence Utility Function

I was watching the AI Stop Button Problem from Computerphile, and was very confused on the difference between two approaches. Background: there is a barebones general intelligence running in the form ...
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0answers
49 views

Program that solves mechanics diagram problems

There is a program, BEATRIX, that can understand textbook physics problems specified by a combination of English text and a diagram. The result of the understanding process is a unified internal model ...
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1answer
240 views

In Lbest PSO, how is the local best position in a neighbourhood defined?

I am implementing a couple of PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithms, and I got stuck on a bit of detail which I could not clearly determine from the papers I have read. In lbest PSO, for each ...
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0answers
567 views

What are the inputs to an LSTM for Slot Filling Task

I am confused on the inputs of a Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) for the slot filling task in Spoken Language Understanding. Before I worked on this, I implemented a language model with a Recurrent ...
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2answers
84 views

Explanation of proof of why connectedness is not conjunctively local of any order $k$

I was reading Minsky's and Papert's book on perceptrons and I was reading theorem 0.6.1 and I was having a hard time understanding it. The theorem was about proving that the property "connected" was ...
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1answer
45 views

How would one construct conjunctively local predicate of order k for checking if a shape is Convex?

I was reading Minsky's and Papert's book on perceptrons and it had the definition of conjunctively local as follow (look at the last images if its still unclear): A predicate $\psi$ is conjunctively ...
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0answers
197 views

dealing with multiple local optima

I've recently viewed the paper of AlphaGo, which has done gradient-based reinforcement learning to get stronger. The learning was successful enough to beat a human master, but in this case, supervised ...
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1answer
3k views
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1answer
130 views

Metaprogramming taken to an unnecessarily high level- how can a program write not just other programs, but a programming language? [closed]

So basically, automated language-oriented programming. I've tried finding info on this concept, but have had some trouble, probably because my brain is having a bit of trouble grasping the subject ...

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