Questions tagged [closure-properties]

Questions about operations on objects of some kind that result in objects of the same kind.

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1answer
250 views

Proof Check: The class L is closed under concatenation

I want to prove that the class of all Turing machines that use a logarithmic amount of space is closed under concatenation. The basic idea of my proof is this: given a word, to check if it's in $...
3
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1answer
458 views

For a regular language $L$, is $\{xy^Rz:xyz\in L\}$ regular?

For a regular language $L$, is $\{xy^Rz:xyz\in L\}$ regular? [Where $w^R$ is the reverse of $w$] My intuition says it is, as for a regular $L$, the languages $L^*$, $\{y: xyz\in L\}$ and $L^R$ are ...
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1answer
846 views

Show that PTIME and PSPACE is closed under Klenee star

How to show that PSPACE and PTIME are closed under Kleene star ? I can only show that NP is closed, but it is easy because we can use non-determinism to guess partition of word. In these two cases I ...
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2answers
1k views

Closure under the Star Operation

I'm doing my homework, but there's one task that I didn't get the idea. Task: Recall the alternative definition for the star of a language A that we gave just before Theorem 2.3.1. In Theorems 2.3.1 ...
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1answer
459 views

Finite substitution and regular closure properties

I'm not sure if I get the following definition right: 1.Def: A map $\varphi: \Sigma^{*} \rightarrow 2^{\Delta^{*}}$ is called Substitution iff: $\forall u,v \in \Sigma^{*}: \varphi(uv)=\varphi(u) \...
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1answer
401 views

Under which operations is the class of non-recursive languages a closure?

I am currently studying turing computability and related problems such as the halting problem with a background in formal languages. I know that the class of recursive (decidable) languages is a ...
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0answers
231 views

Writing a constructive proof for closure of a regular language under homomorphism

I've spend the last few days searching online for an example of a constructive proof of regular languages being closed under homomorphism, but I have not seen one. I am mostly unsure of how to show ...
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1answer
94 views

Prove the following language is regular using closures

How can I prove this language is regular using just closures and homomorphism? $$ L = \{a_1b_1a_2b_2\dotsm a_nb_n \mid a_i \in L_1 , b_i \in L_2\} $$ and we know $L_1$ and $L_2$ are regular.
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1answer
174 views

Question of DFA closure properties?

I have some question about DFA Language properties. Does closure under intersection and complementation imply closure under union? Does closure under intersection and union imply closure under ...
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1answer
276 views

Reflexive transitive closure = (zero or more) Kleene star?

In Alloy Tutorial they denote some reflexive transitive closure with Kleene star saying that they admit zero or more elements at that position. ...
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2answers
224 views

Is the union between a regular language and a random language also a regular language?

If not can we draw any conclusion about the newly fromed language, the language that represents the union between a regular language and a non regular language (not context free but a truly random ...
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3answers
7k views
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1answer
371 views

Closure of regular languages to shuffle using closure operations

Given a language: $L = \{\; a_1b_1a_2b_2a_3b_3\dots a_nb_n \mid \forall i: a_i,b_i \in \Sigma, a_1\dots a_n \in L_1\ , b_1\dots b_n \in L_2 \;\}$ Also $L_1, L_2$ are regular languages. Using ...
4
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1answer
150 views

Inverse Homomorphisms and Kleene star

The exercise is to prove or give a counterexample to the following proposition with $L \subseteq \Gamma^*$ regular and $h: \Gamma \to \Sigma^*$ a homomorphism. Is there any regular language $L'$ such ...
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2answers
2k views

How to prove regular languages are closed under left quotient?

$L$ is a regular language over the alphabet $\Sigma = \{a,b\}$. The left quotient of $L$ regarding $w \in \Sigma^*$ is the language $$w^{-1} L := \{v \mid wv \in L\}$$ How can I prove that $w^{-1}L$ ...
7
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1answer
4k views

If $L$ is a regular language then so is $\sqrt{L}=\{w:ww\in L\}$

I am interested in proving that $\sqrt{L}=\{w:ww\in L\}$ is regular if $L$ is regular but I don't seem to be getting anywhere. If possible I was hoping for a hint to get me going in the right ...
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1answer
96 views

If $R,F \cap R, F \cap \overline{R}$ are regular, is $F$ regular?

Let $R \in REG$. Is it true that if $F\cap R \in REG$ and $F \cap \overline{R} \in REG$ then $F \in REG$? I took $R = \Sigma^{\ast}$ and because $F\cap R \in REG$, $F$ must be regular. Is this the ...
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1answer
246 views

How do I prove that a language is regular? [duplicate]

In order to prove that the following language is regular, would I use a pumping lemma? The set $A$ of all strings that are substrings of some string in $L$, where $L \subseteq\Sigma^*$. $L$ Must be ...
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1answer
2k views

Finding a Regular Expression for an Intersection of Two Regular Expressions

Finding a Regular Expression for an Intersection of Two Regular Expressions PAIR of regular expressions is ((ss*)t*) and ((ss*) + (tt*)). How do I find a regular expression that represents the ...
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1answer
121 views

Proving that REG is reverse-closed against inverse homomorphism

prove/disprove If inverse homomorphism of languages is regular then languages is also regular? Let $h$ be a homomorphism , if $h^{-1}(L)$ is regular then $L$ is also regular?
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2answers
796 views

Should two DFAs be complete before making an intersection of them?

In the slides given by my teacher, the third automaton is the product of the first two: I tried to do the product myself by doing the transition table of both automata at the same time. I got stuck ...
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1answer
3k views

How to show that a language {w|ww^R in A} is regular, A being regular?

Been working on my homework and I've been stuck on a question for over a week now. Not really asking for a solution but if someone could point me towards the right direction that would be great, as I ...
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1answer
509 views

Prove a language is regular - Regular language of 0's and 1's [duplicate]

I'm new to regular languages and I've been struggling to solve one for a while. The question is: If there exists a regular language L1 which has an alphabet {0,1}, prove that L2 is also a regular ...
4
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1answer
457 views

Prove that PP is closed under complement

I found this proof in Wikipedia, but one of the most important steps in it doesn't make any sense to me. I'll explain: By the definition of PP there is a polynomial-time probabilistic algorithm ...
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1answer
119 views

How to show that certain summations are primitive recursive?

If we have a function $g\colon \mathbb{N}^{k+1} \to \mathbb{N}$ which is primitive-recursive. How to show that the function $f\colon \mathbb{N}^{k+1} \to \mathbb{N}$ with $$f(x_1, \dots, x_k , x_{k+...
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2answers
785 views

Showing Regular Languages are closed under removal of rightmost character

"Show that if L is a regular language without the empty string, then the language in which the rightmost symbol of every string in is removed is also regular." I tried going by closure properties of ...
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1answer
193 views

Show that the complements of NP-languages with one word per length are in NP as well

Let L be a language over Σ i.e., $L\subseteq Σ^∗$. Suppose L satisfies the > two conditions given below. L is in NP and for every n, there is exactly one string of length n that belongs to ...
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2answers
1k views

Is intersection of regular language and context free language is “always” context free language

I have read that intersection of regular language and context-free language is always context-free. Most of the places an standard example has been used to prove this, e.g., \begin{align*} L_1 &= ...
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1answer
174 views

proving that pp closed under cook reductions [closed]

I tried to prove or disprove that pp is closed under cook reductions. anyone has a idea or link to a answer?
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1answer
724 views

when can I know if a class (complexity) is closed under reduction (cook/karp)

How do I know if a class let's say PP , is closed under cook reduction or not closed? I understand the concept of reduction (how to use it mainly) , but still can't figure out the meaning behind it, ...
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2answers
486 views

Proving that PP is closed under symmetric difference

I want to prove that PP is under symmertic difference. let A be a language in PP and B likewise. I tried showing that : (A\B) U (B\A) in PP , so by show each in PP and then showing that it's closed ...
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1answer
119 views

Turing Machine and decidability

so the thing is that i have to prove that if the language $L ⊆ \Sigma^*$ is decidable then both languages are also decidable. $$P_1(L) = \{w ∈ Σ\mid \text{ For every prefix v of w, we have }v ∈ L\},$$ ...
3
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1answer
303 views

How to Trace Path in Proof that Regular Languages are Closed Under Reversal

I'm self studying automata theory and I need help with proving that regular languages are closed under reversal. I have a basic proof, but am unsure about last statement in my proof. Is this ...
4
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1answer
309 views

Is NEXP = co-NEXP?

It is known that $\mathsf{NL}=\mathsf{Co{-}NL}$ and unknown if $\mathsf{NP}=\mathsf{Co{-}NP}$. But what about $$\mathsf{NEXP}=\mathsf{Co{-}NEXP}?$$ Is it known whether these two classes are equal?
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3answers
357 views

Regularity of “middles” of words from regular language

I need some help with the following problem. Let $L \subseteq \Sigma^*$ be a regular language. I have to prove that the language $P = \{\alpha \mid \beta\alpha\gamma \in L, \beta,\gamma \in \Sigma^*\}$...
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1answer
128 views

Finding the mistake(s) within this “proof” of NP being closed for complement

For my classes in theoretical computer science the following proof must be shown to be wrong. However, this is the first time I am attempting myself at this topic, so I would be thankful for some help:...
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1answer
299 views

Why do we study closure properties of formal languages?

In automata theory we study formal languages like Regular, CF, CS and etc. and each of them have their own closure properties under union, intersection, star and etc. . I like to know, why it is ...
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1answer
314 views

Closure properties of the class of inherently ambiguous CFLs

is set of inherently ambiguous context free languages close under operations such that union, intersection, kleene star, concatenation, reverse, complementation and etc. how many of theme are answered?...
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2answers
2k views

Why are palindrome and not-palindrome both context-free?

Both palindrome and its complement are context-free. This is very interesting. Both are non-deterministic context-free, which in general are not closed under complement. What is it about these two ...
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1answer
115 views

If L is a regular language then the language replace(L,σ,τ) is also regular

I am stuck at the following problem: Prove that if $L$ is a regular language over some alphabet $\Sigma$ and that $\sigma, \tau \in \Sigma$, Then the language $replace(L,\sigma,\tau)$ is regular. ...
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1answer
137 views

If a language is X-complete, is its complement is X-complete as well?

I'm looking for an information about closure of complexity complete classes. Is it true that any language, if the language is X-complete, then its complement is X-complete? Why? I was thinking ...
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1answer
58 views

How to prove that the decidable languages are closed against iteration only by enumerators?

We have the $L\in R$, how can we prove that $L^*\in R$ only by enumerators? I try to use induction, but as I understand I wrong... I'd like to get any help!
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2answers
1k views

Closure under reversal of regular languages: Proof using Automata

I have been studying the closure properties of regular languages, referencing the book Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation by John E. Hopcroft and Jeffery D. Ullman. Under the ...
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1answer
492 views

If a language is context free, then its complement is decidable

I am having a bit of trouble figuring this out. If L is context-free then we know it is decidable. The class of decidable languages is closed under complement thus, $L$ $\cap$ $L^{c}$, therefore $L^{c}...
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1answer
2k views

Proving $A$ avoiding $B$ regular if $A$ and $B$ are regular

Suppose we define an operation such that $$A \text{ avoiding } B = \{w \in A \mid w\text{ has no substring in }B\}\,.$$ How can I prove that, if $A$ and $B$ are regular then $A\text{ avoiding }B$ ...
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1answer
171 views

Smallest class of automata model whose corresponding language class contains CFL and is closed against (dis)allowing nondeterminism in the model

From a comment, an interesting question popped up. The class of CFLs (the languages recognized by PDAs) are obviously not closed under nondeterminism - what I mean by this is that deterministic PDAs ...
3
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1answer
526 views

L closed under logspace reduction

Given two languages $A$ and $B$ I have been asked to show that, if $B \in L$ and we have a logspace reduction $f$ from $A$ to $B$ then $A \in L$. I read the proof that $L$ is closed under logspace ...
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1answer
184 views

Is the complement of the given language necessarily in NP?

$A$ is a given language so that $A \in NP$. Assume that $P = NP$. Is $A'$ necessarily in NP? What I did: $A \in NP , P=NP$ $P=coP$ (Can be proven by running a TM $M$ as a decider for P, ...
3
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3answers
905 views

Why is the set of all regular expressions classified as context-free, instead of regular?

As I understand regular languages can be closed under concatenation, so can I concatenate the set of all regular expressions to classify them as regular?
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1answer
88 views

Why $A \cap B = \widehat{\widehat{A}\cup \widehat{B}}$ does not holds for the class of Recursively Enumerable Languages?

"The class of Recursively Enumerable Languages is closed under Union, and Intersection but they are not closed under Complement." I know why they are not closed under Complement & why they are ...