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Questions tagged [communication-protocols]

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Looking for two-way communication/consensus/contract algorithm for use in marriage proposal

I am looking for some sort of communication or consensus algorithm with the following properties: Can be used with just two parties (and ideally doesn't collapse to a trivial case with two parties) ...
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16 views

utilization of bitmap protocol

I am curious about utilization calculation in the bitmap protocol. especially if there's a difference between if only station 0 wants to broadcast(and the others doesn't) or only some other station ...
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7 views

minimal broadcasting frame length in a CSMA/CD protocol

i'm unsure about the following question, would appreciate your assistance with it: in a CSMA/CD network with a cable length of L, and propagation speed T, with no need of repeaters(the signal is not ...
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theoretical question about difference between transmitting stations in Bit-Map Protocol

i am wondering about the difference between the transmitting station in a bit map protocol. for instance, if we have 8 broadcasting stations numbered 0-7, and the racing (contenting) time is $t_0$ ...
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23 views

Affects of altering a line in “stop and wait” protocol(no noises)

what will happen if we change "to_physical_layer(&s)" to "to_physical_layer(&r)" in the following code(marked in the code where)? does it make the protocol fail? if so, show a scenario it ...
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go back n protocol scenario consequences

i am not sure with tihs question. i will post it here along with my attempt: the following scenario is regarding go back protocol n, with 3 bits for sequential numbering, assuming that the following ...
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21 views

A file is sent from host A to client B, the packet passes through router R on its way to B. Calculate the total delay for the file to reach B

This is a question from an old exam that ive been trying to work out: The 40000 bit file is split into 10 packets with a 400 bit header added to each packet The link from A to R is 500 km long and ...
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1answer
35 views

How is the literal meaning of “rendezvous” related to its usage in distributed computing?

I am trying to figure out the difference between RPC and Rendezvous. Is it correct that they differ only on their implementation on server side: RPC will involve creating a new process/thread to ...
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1answer
55 views

Complexity of sending an $n$-bit string

Consider a $2$-party communication model in which $A$ wish to send to $B$ an $n$-bit string. It is very easy to prove that any deterministic protocol for this problem requires $\Omega(n)$ bits to be ...
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1answer
23 views

Randomized communication complexity of indexing

The function $\mathrm{INDEX}:\{0,1\}^n\times\{1,\dots,n\}\to \{0,1\}$ is defined as $$\mathrm{INDEX}(x,i)=x_i,$$ where $x=x_1\dots x_n$. I am looking for the randomized communication complexity of $\...
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2answers
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How to decide which bytes will form a packet ?(computer networks)

In wireless communication , I understand what it means to transmit a "bit" but I wanted to understand what exactly does it mean by a packet . *******POST EDIT/RECEIVING INITIAL ANSWERS******* I got ...
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1answer
78 views

Private IP and public IP

What we see on our devices is essentially the private IP given to us by the ISP; thereby, whenever we access the internet, this private IP is first converted to public IP (by ISP through NAT), ...
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1answer
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The role of the root switch after Spanning Tree Protocol has established a tree network in a LAN?

In Spanning Tree Protocol, a root switch is selected at first, and then somehow, the shortest path from each other switch to the root is obtained. Thus we established a tree network. My questions ...
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19 views

Why Not To Take B8ZS with encoding 7 digit?

I have a simple question. In signal encoding we have B8ZS (Bipolar with 8 zeros substitutions) technique which encodes every 8 sequencial 0 bits with 000+-0-+ or 000-+0-+ depends on previous voltage ...
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2answers
28 views

When packets are not full?

When in computer networks it happens that the packets are not full? I have heard that sometimes in UDP that happens, if that’s the case, why not all the space is not used?
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1answer
17 views

Is it possible to give a guarantee about the accuracy of the local time?

Assuming there is no attack/bug and I use NTP: Are there any formal guarantees about the accuracy of the local time? Can there be any over the network? Even if the communication is going directly ...
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2answers
60 views

Finding the total capacity of two communication channels

I have the transition matrices of two communication channels. I am able to find the capacity of each by performing an optimization calculation, however I need the total capacity of the two channels. ...
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37 views

IEC 870-5-104 vs Modbus Protocol

I have the basic knoweledge of IEC 104 and Modbus protocols. But i am finding a lil difficult in distuinguishing between them apart from their packet structures. Could someone provide additional info ...
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Omega Network with number of nodes not a power of 2

All the literature I could find on Omega Networks points towards the number of nodes being a power of 2. Is there an efficient design for an Omega Network with the number of nodes, not a power of 2? ...
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1answer
28 views

Is there an existing protocol where a sender does not know who he is sending data to?

I was thinking about how the BitTorrent protocol automatically gives every peer a list of IPs of every other user who is currently seeding / leeching off the torrent in question. Is there an existing ...
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1answer
104 views

Could a standardized ternary system be more efficient than the binary system? [duplicate]

Could a standardized ternary (base-3) system be more efficient than the binary (base-2) system? Binary is efficient for processing using logic gates, but can be bulky when using for file storage or ...
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1answer
62 views

Chord protocol - How should I go about mapping nodes to placeholders on the ring?

In the real world, how is a node mapped to the position on the ring, Each nodes's IP address is hashed using SHA-1 hashing algorithm which will produce this hash - 73.128.154.69 hashed into ...
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2answers
346 views

Why is RTS/CTS optional?

I was reading in Wikipedia about it and one of the main things that were pointed out was that it is only an optional mechanism. This bugs me more than it should as I cannot find any information that I ...
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1answer
34 views

Compute the union of two sets between two endpoints minimizing communication complexity

I have two endpoints, $a$ and $b$, that can communicate through a channel. $a$ is storing a set of fixed-length strings $A = \{a_1, \ldots, a_{N_A}\}$, and $b$ is storing another set of fixed-length ...
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98 views

Probability in Dynamic frame aloha

If I've RFID Collision Arbitration System that is based on multi-frame dynamic frame ALOHA. How can compute the probability of the average tag resolution $L_n$? ,$P_s$ is probability for packet ...
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1answer
70 views

Is data received after transmission immediately stored and can that be recovered?

When I send a message from one device to another, during the process during which the other device is receiving the data, is that data stored temporarily on some place on the device or is it ...
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1answer
71 views

IP Fragmentation

I have an IPv4 packet, 3523 byte of information Data a MTU (maximum transmission unit) of 516 (496 byte + 20 byte IP header), also an TCP header with 20 byte. How does this result is created from the ...
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1answer
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TCP Connection Termination - FIN, FIN ACK, ACK

I've been reading that to terminate a TCP connection 3 handshakes are required: FIN, FIN ACK, and ACK. However, when closing a connection, Wireshark displays FIN ACK, FIN ACK, ACK; it never displays ...
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1answer
232 views

Serial communication and parity bit

I was revising Computer Science and I got these two doubts to which I've found contradictory answers on Google: In a serial communication which bit is sent first? When using a parity bit with ASCII ...
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1answer
355 views

Data link layer Sliding Window utilization formula query

In the data link layer, the Sliding Window is used for flow control. There are two link utilization formula that can be use. They are : U = 1, for N > 2a + 1 OR U = N/(1+2a), for N < 2a + 1 In ...
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1answer
88 views

Classification of technologies used for communication in distributed systems

I am currently writing a State of Art about technologies used for distributed communication (like CORBA for example). I want to structure the document in way that I don't leave any subset of this ...
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0answers
40 views

Authority section in DNS packet always contains NS records?

I'm new to DNS and I'm trying to understand the DNS packet format. From what I understand, the authority section of a DNS packet gives information about servers that are authoritative for the domain ...
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1answer
325 views

The throughput of the ALOHA protocol if the Binomial distribution was used

In all the examples of ALOHA I've seen, the Poisson distribution is used. Theoretically, how could the throughput be calculated if a Binomial distribution was used instead? For example, in the case ...
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65 views

How to ensure connectedness in a masterless gossip protocol?

This is a theoretical question about how gossip protocols work; I am not asking about any specific implementation or piece of software. I've read the wikipedia page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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1answer
37 views

What is a “name/variable of base type” in applied $\pi$-calculus?

I'm studying the articleVerifying privacy-type properties of electronic voting protocols which uses Applied $\pi$-calculus to formalize voting protocols and verifies some privacy-related properties. ...
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3answers
6k views

Link utilization of sliding window protocol

Before I ask my doubt I would like to state that problem which led me to my doubt. It can also serve as a good example scenario. A $20\ Kbps$ satellite link has a propagation delay of $400\ ms$. ...
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2answers
165 views

How does TCP manage to discard segment received from a source other than the one with which the connection has been established?

It is known that TCP is a connection oriented transport layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite. But TCP (and UDP) operate over a connection less network layer protocol, the IP (internet protocol). What ...
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1answer
46 views

Resending old frame when a damaged frame has been received in one bit sliding window protocol

I'm reading Tanenbaum's and Wheterall's book on Computer Networks. I'm trying out some examples of situations that can occur in the one bit sliding window protocol for a datalink layer. The code for ...
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98 views

Training preamble in convolutional codes

as I was examining the VirtualWire library used in Arduino projects, I noticed that the header of the messages that are transmitted begin with a 36 bit "training preamble." What exactly is a training ...
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Merits and demerits of convolutional and linear block codes

Continuing on from my previous post... Both convolution and linear block codes can be used for error correction. The main benefits I gathered from using convolutional codes is that, it's easy to ...
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1answer
251 views

Convolutional and Linear block codes

Both convolution and linear block codes can be used for error correction. The main benefits I gathered from using convolutional codes is that, it's easy to implement and does better (than linear codes)...
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2answers
6k views

Difference between CRC and Hamming Code

I am a bit confused on the difference between Cyclic Redundancy Check and Hamming Code. Both add a check value attached based on the some arithmetic operation of the bits in the message being ...
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1answer
110 views

Do iterative DNS queries return results from the servers cache?

So if i only used iterative requests to a recursive dns server and since this server has cached results from recursive queries, does this mean the iterative request gets a result from the cache or ...
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1answer
658 views

What is the best you can do with a noisy message?

You play a TV game in which you have to open one door out of $n$. Behind each door, there is a treasure with probability 1/2, independent of the other doors, so your apriori chance of winning is 1/2. ...
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5answers
6k views

Why are so many internet protocols text-based?

From what I have found, a very large amount of protocols that travel over the internet are "text-based" rather than binary. The protocols in question include, but are not limited to HTTP, SMTP, FTP (I ...
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1answer
484 views

What advantage does Tangaroa offer over PBFT?

Tangaroa is a relatively new project adding Byzantine fault-tolerance to the Raft consensus protocol using techniques that were already used in the PBFT algorithm. What are the advantages, when should ...
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1answer
114 views

Example of reduction in communication complexity

Let us assume the standard situation in communication complexity with two players $P_1,P_2.$ We have a function $f:[n] \times [n] \mapsto \{0,1\}$ that both players known in advance. They wish to ...
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Why is Game Theory used to explain implementations of 3GPP D2D communication?

My question is about D2D as it relates to 3GPP (release 13+, I believe). All I have read on the subject uses Game Theory as a mechanism to explain usage. Why would authors use Game Theory for ...
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1answer
64 views

How is a communication protocol a mechanism?

Given a finite set $\Sigma$ and a positive integer $n$, a mechanism is a set $\{ \mu_x \vert x \in \Sigma^n \}$ such that $\mu_x$ is a probability measure on some $\sigma-$algebra for each $x$. Now ...
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If the two generals problem is unsolvable how can we human beings agree on things?

If the two generals problem is unsolvable how can we human beings agree on things? I mean, we communicate everyday and have the same limitations as any communication problem handled by computer ...