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Questions tagged [communication-protocols]

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Calculate the throughput of a channel using Go-Back-N protocol with given communication parameters

Bandwidth: 1 Mbps Round-trip Time (RTT): 50 ms Packet Loss Rate: 10% Packet size: 1000 bit Acknowledgement size: 40 bit Timeout: 100 ms (for simplicity, a fixed timeout for all packets)
Star Gazer's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

Introductory textbook on session types

What is a good/standard textbook on session types? I'm looking for more information on semantics for session-types-like languages, their features (branching, recursion, etc.), properties, and if ...
bobismijnnaam's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
48 views

Communication complexity of Dyck language

I've been reading papers on streaming algorithms and ran across the following question which I haven't been able to answer: Consider the Dyck language $Dyck(2)$ over the alphabet $A = \{(,),[,]\}$ and ...
asamsa's user avatar
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17 views

Looking for collection of protocol state machines

I'm currently studying structural properties of network and control protocols and their relation to testing. I'm specifically interested in state machines. They would not need to cover the full ...
programonkey's user avatar
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0 answers
27 views

Asymmetric communication between two symmetric parties?

(sci-fi-esque question inspired by Counterpart). A portal between our world (called $A$) and a parallel world that's exactly the same (called $B$) opens up. Bob sees himself through this portal. $A$-...
chausies's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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An Arithmetic Encoding's length being ambiguous?

Say they are two tokens, A and B. A has probability weight 0.99 (and B has 0.01). If I want to encode the sequence "AAA", wouldn't the binary encoding just be "0"? And wouldn't ...
chausies's user avatar
  • 532
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1 answer
117 views

How can computers tell where the beginning and end of file/packet/frame headers are?

I'd like to know how a computer can determine the beginning and end of certain file components (attributes, headers, frame/packet/segment headers etc.) when these components can be omitted or added in ...
Inquisitive's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
43 views

Can a static pre-shared database reduce communication size?

Is the problem of communication with a pre-shared database studied? If yes, what field studies it, or which researchers work on it? Let there be two parties that want to share multiple yet-to-be-...
Samyon Ristov's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
19 views

Negotiating a connection between two devices that can't transmit and receive simultaneously

I've got a bit of a puzzle here that sits at the intersection of mathematics and technology. Hopefully this doesn't fall into brainteaser territory - I'm not sure a neat solution is possible! I have ...
penitent_tangent's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
34 views

Communication protocol so that messages are read "synchronously"

Is there a communication protocol that ensures that both parties can read the other one's message at the same time (or at the very least, only after sending their own message, thus no party can read a ...
EnderNicky's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
302 views

why use bellman-ford instead of Dijstra in RIP routing?

The RIP routing protocol was published in 1988 and uses Bellman-Ford algorithm to calculate shortest path. Also more recent version of RIP (RIPv2 and RIPng) use the same algorithm. The Djikstra ...
Giovanni's user avatar
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1 answer
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Tearing down the FSM description of congestion control

I was going through the text Computer Networking- A Top-Down Approach by Kurose and Ross, there I found subtleties with the TCP congestion control FSM which is shown below: Mainly I am having ...
Abhishek Ghosh's user avatar
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0 answers
16 views

How does RCS compare to extending text message protocol?

Text message constantly keeps adding more emoji so I know the protocol could be extended with a delimiter at minimum. How does RCS compare to extending text message protocol? I ask this because I ...
William's user avatar
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0 answers
1k views

Decode TCP Payload data

I'm trying to find out what the data of a packet means. I'm a newbie to networking, and I try to find what's sent in this packet: https://pastebin.com/hZEqjmBx How can I do that? What does that data ...
Alex Stroescu's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
89 views

Complexity of two-party maximum

Given function $\max\colon \{0, 1\}^{n} \times \{0, 1\}^{n} \rightarrow \{0, 1\}^{n}$ that returns the maximum of two binary $n$-vectors (interpreted as encoding numbers in the range $0,\ldots,2^n-1$),...
qetwryeturyi's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
148 views

Why are processes on the internet not required to use TCP or UDP?

Here is an excerpt from Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 5th edition, Chapter 5 (The Network layer), Page 455: [Fifth, processes on the Internet are not required to use TCP or UDP. If a user on ...
Nurin Izzati Jafri's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
51 views

MAC protocol with throughput of 1

Consider a MAC protocol (ALOHA, CSMA, TDMA, etc.) that, even for very high loads, always results in a throughput of 1 (normalized with respect to the channel speed). Why is that not good if the ...
VimForLife's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
200 views

'Half-Close' figure of Data Communications and Networking, 5/e

In the Figure 24.13 of Data Communications and Networking, 5/e the first ACK message from the server holds y-1 in it's Sequence no. field. Note that the first FIN ...
Argon's user avatar
  • 93
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Communication Complexity for Product Distributions

In general for the (two-party) set disjointness problem for inputs of length n, we know that the parties need to communicate $\Omega(n)$. Surprisingly, today I discovered (if I understood correctly) ...
Cryptonaut's user avatar
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1 answer
43 views

tcp congestion avoidance

I came across this question: ...
x89's user avatar
  • 167
1 vote
1 answer
4k views

ip/tcp packet decoding without wireshark

How can we manually read and interpret packets properly without using wireshark? Now from the Ethernet header I know that the Destination MAC Address should be at the 5th byte (after converting bits/...
x89's user avatar
  • 167
2 votes
0 answers
82 views

Sending infinite frames in One-Bit Sliding WIndow Protocol?

I am reading Computer Networks by Andrew S. Tanenbaum and I wonder if there is a mistake in the protocol as I can't find any solution for the following scenario. Suppose the transmitter (A) has only ...
NimaJan's user avatar
  • 353
1 vote
2 answers
105 views

What are the underlying mechanisms allowing us to unsend an email?

I am currently studying Computer Networking, and I was reading about the different types of Application Layer Protocols. In the book I am reading (Computer Networking: A Top-down Approach) it is ...
Sami's user avatar
  • 35
1 vote
0 answers
27 views

Auxiliary random variables in the analysis of the private information of wiretap channels

I am following Section 13.2 of Mark Wilde's book. I reproduce the question here for completeness. Consider a wiretap channel $X\rightarrow Y,Z$ defined by the conditional probabilities $p(y,z|x)$ for ...
user1936752's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
93 views

What is the name of this experimental OS?

I am trying to find an OS that had a network to verify it's users. It classified itself in classes going from greatest signifigance to least, and the names were galaxy, system, planet, comet etc. I ...
Tt Mm's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
44 views

Guaranteed existence of a blocking set in the accept definition of Stellar

In the SCP, condition 2 of the accept definition allows a node to vote for one statement and later accept a contradictory one. Condition 2 assumes the existence of a v-blocking set which has not only ...
nbcb's user avatar
  • 21
1 vote
1 answer
116 views

Where were the ideas of vote, accept and commit phases originally introduced?

In the Stellar Consensus Protocol SCP, the voting procedure follows a 3 phase commit i.e. vote, accept and confirm i.e. see section 5. Is this a novel introduction or has this been previously been ...
nbcb's user avatar
  • 21
1 vote
1 answer
492 views

Is a "protocol" a set of algorithms and data structures?

I'm not major in science at all and would like to verify whether my understanding is correct or not. I just did some googling about the definition of protocol, such as in this, this one, this one and ...
user53815's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
266 views

Is the capacity achieving input of a discrete memoryless channel unique?

Consider a classical discrete memoryless channel (DMC). Let $p$ be an input probability distribution and $Q$ be the channel's transition matrix. $q = Qp$ is a valid output probability distribution. ...
user1936752's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
26 views

Go Back N question(netwrok)

Hello I am trying to understand the GBN protocol and I encountered the following question during my homework. Assume that we have GBN protocol with a window size of 20. The sender sends 15 packets ...
Amitay Tsinis's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
473 views

Basic Question in networking - why max data size of ip datagram 65535 BYTES and not 65535 bits?

I recently started computer networks with some understanding of algorithms and discrete mathematics. I am completely new. Kindly elaborate following - data size of ip datagram = 16bits. So with this $...
Nascimento de Cos's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
56 views

Reaching Shannon capacity of a channel

Suppose I have the following from alphabet $\mathcal{X} = \{0 ,1\}$ to $\mathcal{Y} = \{0 ,1\}$. The channel simply does \begin{align} 0 \rightarrow 0&\quad \text{with probability 1} \\ 1 \...
user1936752's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
342 views

Finding maximal and average number of time slots in an Adaptive tree walk protocol

Tried to research here and on other sites with no luck regarding finding the maximal and average number of time slots in an Adaptive tree walk protocol. i'll explain what i mean here: In a simple(...
Networking's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
21 views

Can a transcript change dependent random variables into independent variables?

Let's say $X, Y$ are dependent random variables. Can I find an example such that for a transcript $t$ conditioned on a communication protocol $\Pi=t$, the variables become independent?
cz5's user avatar
  • 35
2 votes
1 answer
85 views

Looking for two-way communication/consensus/contract algorithm for use in marriage proposal

I am looking for some sort of communication or consensus algorithm with the following properties: Can be used with just two parties (and ideally doesn't collapse to a trivial case with two parties) ...
seaotternerd's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
244 views

utilization of bitmap protocol

I am curious about utilization calculation in the bitmap protocol. especially if there's a difference between if only station 0 wants to broadcast(and the others doesn't) or only some other station ...
hps13's user avatar
  • 101
0 votes
0 answers
31 views

Affects of altering a line in "stop and wait" protocol(no noises)

what will happen if we change "to_physical_layer(&s)" to "to_physical_layer(&r)" in the following code(marked in the code where)? does it make the protocol fail? if so, show a scenario it ...
Network's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
645 views

How is the literal meaning of "rendezvous" related to its usage in distributed computing?

I am trying to figure out the difference between RPC and Rendezvous. Is it correct that they differ only on their implementation on server side: RPC will involve creating a new process/thread to ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 4,925
1 vote
1 answer
163 views

Complexity of sending an $n$-bit string

Consider a $2$-party communication model in which $A$ wish to send to $B$ an $n$-bit string. It is very easy to prove that any deterministic protocol for this problem requires $\Omega(n)$ bits to be ...
user91015's user avatar
  • 151
1 vote
1 answer
180 views

Randomized communication complexity of indexing

The function $\mathrm{INDEX}:\{0,1\}^n\times\{1,\dots,n\}\to \{0,1\}$ is defined as $$\mathrm{INDEX}(x,i)=x_i,$$ where $x=x_1\dots x_n$. I am looking for the randomized communication complexity of $\...
Danny's user avatar
  • 994
0 votes
2 answers
83 views

How to decide which bytes will form a packet ?(computer networks)

In wireless communication , I understand what it means to transmit a "bit" but I wanted to understand what exactly does it mean by a packet . *******POST EDIT/RECEIVING INITIAL ANSWERS******* I got ...
private ryan's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
116 views

Private IP and public IP

What we see on our devices is essentially the private IP given to us by the ISP; thereby, whenever we access the internet, this private IP is first converted to public IP (by ISP through NAT), ...
Anonymous Developer's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
112 views

The role of the root switch after Spanning Tree Protocol has established a tree network in a LAN?

In Spanning Tree Protocol, a root switch is selected at first, and then somehow, the shortest path from each other switch to the root is obtained. Thus we established a tree network. My questions ...
Mengfan Ma's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
27 views

Why Not To Take B8ZS with encoding 7 digit?

I have a simple question. In signal encoding we have B8ZS (Bipolar with 8 zeros substitutions) technique which encodes every 8 sequencial 0 bits with 000+-0-+ or 000-+0-+ depends on previous voltage ...
JollyRoger's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
57 views

When packets are not full?

When in computer networks it happens that the packets are not full? I have heard that sometimes in UDP that happens, if that’s the case, why not all the space is not used?
Sus20200's user avatar
  • 129
0 votes
1 answer
27 views

Is it possible to give a guarantee about the accuracy of the local time?

Assuming there is no attack/bug and I use NTP: Are there any formal guarantees about the accuracy of the local time? Can there be any over the network? Even if the communication is going directly ...
Martin Thoma's user avatar
  • 2,360
3 votes
2 answers
330 views

Finding the total capacity of two communication channels

I have the transition matrices of two communication channels. I am able to find the capacity of each by performing an optimization calculation, however I need the total capacity of the two channels. ...
knw500's user avatar
  • 133
1 vote
1 answer
36 views

Is there an existing protocol where a sender does not know who he is sending data to?

I was thinking about how the BitTorrent protocol automatically gives every peer a list of IPs of every other user who is currently seeding / leeching off the torrent in question. Is there an existing ...
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
584 views

Could a standardized ternary system be more efficient than the binary system? [duplicate]

Could a standardized ternary (base-3) system be more efficient than the binary (base-2) system? Binary is efficient for processing using logic gates, but can be bulky when using for file storage or ...
JaceVoracek's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
127 views

Chord protocol - How should I go about mapping nodes to placeholders on the ring?

In the real world, how is a node mapped to the position on the ring, Each nodes's IP address is hashed using SHA-1 hashing algorithm which will produce this hash - 73.128.154.69 hashed into ...
Shintu Joseph's user avatar