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Questions tagged [communication-protocols]

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Guaranteed existence of a blocking set in the accept definition of Stellar

In the SCP, condition 2 of the accept definition allows a node to vote for one statement and later accept a contradictory one. Condition 2 assumes the existence of a v-blocking set which has not only ...
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How do two internet devices agree on a transfer speed

How does a fast device, let's say 1Gbps router, communicate with a 1Mbps device without loosing lots of data? How do the two devices agree on a speed to transfer at?
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Bit stuffing in ethernet

I am naive to computer networks. I studied bit stuffing protocol which helps in identifying the end of the frame. If we assume a two systems which use ethernet protocol at data link layer. How the end ...
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1answer
65 views

Where were the ideas of vote, accept and commit phases originally introduced?

In the Stellar Consensus Protocol SCP, the voting procedure follows a 3 phase commit i.e. vote, accept and confirm i.e. see section 5. Is this a novel introduction or has this been previously been ...
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40 views

Is a “protocol” a set of algorithms and data structures?

I'm not major in science at all and would like to verify whether my understanding is correct or not. I just did some googling about the definition of protocol, such as in this, this one, this one and ...
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Is the capacity achieving input of a discrete memoryless channel unique?

Consider a classical discrete memoryless channel (DMC). Let $p$ be an input probability distribution and $Q$ be the channel's transition matrix. $q = Qp$ is a valid output probability distribution. ...
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Go Back N question(netwrok)

Hello I am trying to understand the GBN protocol and I encountered the following question during my homework. Assume that we have GBN protocol with a window size of 20. The sender sends 15 packets ...
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1answer
58 views

Basic Question in networking - why max data size of ip datagram 65535 BYTES and not 65535 bits?

I recently started computer networks with some understanding of algorithms and discrete mathematics. I am completely new. Kindly elaborate following - data size of ip datagram = 16bits. So with this $...
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1answer
33 views

Reaching Shannon capacity of a channel

Suppose I have the following from alphabet $\mathcal{X} = \{0 ,1\}$ to $\mathcal{Y} = \{0 ,1\}$. The channel simply does \begin{align} 0 \rightarrow 0&\quad \text{with probability 1} \\ 1 \...
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maximal number of time slots until a successful transmission in adaptive tree walking protocol

i have a problem understanding some vital points in adaptive tree walking protocol: for simplicity sake, only two stations want to broadcast in the given network: A and C. what is the maximal number ...
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1answer
34 views

Finding maximal and average number of time slots in an Adaptive tree walk protocol

Tried to research here and on other sites with no luck regarding finding the maximal and average number of time slots in an Adaptive tree walk protocol. i'll explain what i mean here: In a simple(...
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Can a transcript change dependent random variables into independent variables?

Let's say $X, Y$ are dependent random variables. Can I find an example such that for a transcript $t$ conditioned on a communication protocol $\Pi=t$, the variables become independent?
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Looking for two-way communication/consensus/contract algorithm for use in marriage proposal

I am looking for some sort of communication or consensus algorithm with the following properties: Can be used with just two parties (and ideally doesn't collapse to a trivial case with two parties) ...
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utilization of bitmap protocol

I am curious about utilization calculation in the bitmap protocol. especially if there's a difference between if only station 0 wants to broadcast(and the others doesn't) or only some other station ...
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9 views

minimal broadcasting frame length in a CSMA/CD protocol

i'm unsure about the following question, would appreciate your assistance with it: in a CSMA/CD network with a cable length of L, and propagation speed T, with no need of repeaters(the signal is not ...
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theoretical question about difference between transmitting stations in Bit-Map Protocol

i am wondering about the difference between the transmitting station in a bit map protocol. for instance, if we have 8 broadcasting stations numbered 0-7, and the racing (contenting) time is $t_0$ ...
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24 views

Affects of altering a line in “stop and wait” protocol(no noises)

what will happen if we change "to_physical_layer(&s)" to "to_physical_layer(&r)" in the following code(marked in the code where)? does it make the protocol fail? if so, show a scenario it ...
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20 views

go back n protocol scenario consequences

i am not sure with tihs question. i will post it here along with my attempt: the following scenario is regarding go back protocol n, with 3 bits for sequential numbering, assuming that the following ...
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A file is sent from host A to client B, the packet passes through router R on its way to B. Calculate the total delay for the file to reach B

This is a question from an old exam that ive been trying to work out: The 40000 bit file is split into 10 packets with a 400 bit header added to each packet The link from A to R is 500 km long and ...
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46 views

How is the literal meaning of “rendezvous” related to its usage in distributed computing?

I am trying to figure out the difference between RPC and Rendezvous. Is it correct that they differ only on their implementation on server side: RPC will involve creating a new process/thread to ...
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1answer
72 views

Complexity of sending an $n$-bit string

Consider a $2$-party communication model in which $A$ wish to send to $B$ an $n$-bit string. It is very easy to prove that any deterministic protocol for this problem requires $\Omega(n)$ bits to be ...
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1answer
48 views

Randomized communication complexity of indexing

The function $\mathrm{INDEX}:\{0,1\}^n\times\{1,\dots,n\}\to \{0,1\}$ is defined as $$\mathrm{INDEX}(x,i)=x_i,$$ where $x=x_1\dots x_n$. I am looking for the randomized communication complexity of $\...
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How to decide which bytes will form a packet ?(computer networks)

In wireless communication , I understand what it means to transmit a "bit" but I wanted to understand what exactly does it mean by a packet . *******POST EDIT/RECEIVING INITIAL ANSWERS******* I got ...
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1answer
82 views

Private IP and public IP

What we see on our devices is essentially the private IP given to us by the ISP; thereby, whenever we access the internet, this private IP is first converted to public IP (by ISP through NAT), ...
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43 views

The role of the root switch after Spanning Tree Protocol has established a tree network in a LAN?

In Spanning Tree Protocol, a root switch is selected at first, and then somehow, the shortest path from each other switch to the root is obtained. Thus we established a tree network. My questions ...
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Why Not To Take B8ZS with encoding 7 digit?

I have a simple question. In signal encoding we have B8ZS (Bipolar with 8 zeros substitutions) technique which encodes every 8 sequencial 0 bits with 000+-0-+ or 000-+0-+ depends on previous voltage ...
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When packets are not full?

When in computer networks it happens that the packets are not full? I have heard that sometimes in UDP that happens, if that’s the case, why not all the space is not used?
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1answer
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Is it possible to give a guarantee about the accuracy of the local time?

Assuming there is no attack/bug and I use NTP: Are there any formal guarantees about the accuracy of the local time? Can there be any over the network? Even if the communication is going directly ...
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2answers
84 views

Finding the total capacity of two communication channels

I have the transition matrices of two communication channels. I am able to find the capacity of each by performing an optimization calculation, however I need the total capacity of the two channels. ...
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1answer
28 views

Is there an existing protocol where a sender does not know who he is sending data to?

I was thinking about how the BitTorrent protocol automatically gives every peer a list of IPs of every other user who is currently seeding / leeching off the torrent in question. Is there an existing ...
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1answer
127 views

Could a standardized ternary system be more efficient than the binary system? [duplicate]

Could a standardized ternary (base-3) system be more efficient than the binary (base-2) system? Binary is efficient for processing using logic gates, but can be bulky when using for file storage or ...
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1answer
75 views

Chord protocol - How should I go about mapping nodes to placeholders on the ring?

In the real world, how is a node mapped to the position on the ring, Each nodes's IP address is hashed using SHA-1 hashing algorithm which will produce this hash - 73.128.154.69 hashed into ...
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2answers
510 views

Why is RTS/CTS optional?

I was reading in Wikipedia about it and one of the main things that were pointed out was that it is only an optional mechanism. This bugs me more than it should as I cannot find any information that I ...
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1answer
37 views

Compute the union of two sets between two endpoints minimizing communication complexity

I have two endpoints, $a$ and $b$, that can communicate through a channel. $a$ is storing a set of fixed-length strings $A = \{a_1, \ldots, a_{N_A}\}$, and $b$ is storing another set of fixed-length ...
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122 views

Probability in Dynamic frame aloha

If I've RFID Collision Arbitration System that is based on multi-frame dynamic frame ALOHA. How can compute the probability of the average tag resolution $L_n$? ,$P_s$ is probability for packet ...
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1answer
71 views

Is data received after transmission immediately stored and can that be recovered?

When I send a message from one device to another, during the process during which the other device is receiving the data, is that data stored temporarily on some place on the device or is it ...
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1answer
81 views

IP Fragmentation

I have an IPv4 packet, 3523 byte of information Data a MTU (maximum transmission unit) of 516 (496 byte + 20 byte IP header), also an TCP header with 20 byte. How does this result is created from the ...
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1answer
16k views

TCP Connection Termination - FIN, FIN ACK, ACK

I've been reading that to terminate a TCP connection 3 handshakes are required: FIN, FIN ACK, and ACK. However, when closing a connection, Wireshark displays FIN ACK, FIN ACK, ACK; it never displays ...
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1answer
308 views

Serial communication and parity bit

I was revising Computer Science and I got these two doubts to which I've found contradictory answers on Google: In a serial communication which bit is sent first? When using a parity bit with ASCII ...
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1answer
417 views

Data link layer Sliding Window utilization formula query

In the data link layer, the Sliding Window is used for flow control. There are two link utilization formula that can be use. They are : U = 1, for N > 2a + 1 OR U = N/(1+2a), for N < 2a + 1 In ...
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1answer
94 views

Classification of technologies used for communication in distributed systems

I am currently writing a State of Art about technologies used for distributed communication (like CORBA for example). I want to structure the document in way that I don't leave any subset of this ...
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41 views

Authority section in DNS packet always contains NS records?

I'm new to DNS and I'm trying to understand the DNS packet format. From what I understand, the authority section of a DNS packet gives information about servers that are authoritative for the domain ...
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1answer
410 views

The throughput of the ALOHA protocol if the Binomial distribution was used

In all the examples of ALOHA I've seen, the Poisson distribution is used. Theoretically, how could the throughput be calculated if a Binomial distribution was used instead? For example, in the case ...
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How to ensure connectedness in a masterless gossip protocol?

This is a theoretical question about how gossip protocols work; I am not asking about any specific implementation or piece of software. I've read the wikipedia page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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1answer
37 views

What is a “name/variable of base type” in applied $\pi$-calculus?

I'm studying the articleVerifying privacy-type properties of electronic voting protocols which uses Applied $\pi$-calculus to formalize voting protocols and verifies some privacy-related properties. ...
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3answers
7k views

Link utilization of sliding window protocol

Before I ask my doubt I would like to state that problem which led me to my doubt. It can also serve as a good example scenario. A $20\ Kbps$ satellite link has a propagation delay of $400\ ms$. ...
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198 views

How does TCP manage to discard segment received from a source other than the one with which the connection has been established?

It is known that TCP is a connection oriented transport layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite. But TCP (and UDP) operate over a connection less network layer protocol, the IP (internet protocol). What ...
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51 views

Resending old frame when a damaged frame has been received in one bit sliding window protocol

I'm reading Tanenbaum's and Wheterall's book on Computer Networks. I'm trying out some examples of situations that can occur in the one bit sliding window protocol for a datalink layer. The code for ...
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Training preamble in convolutional codes

as I was examining the VirtualWire library used in Arduino projects, I noticed that the header of the messages that are transmitted begin with a 36 bit "training preamble." What exactly is a training ...
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Merits and demerits of convolutional and linear block codes

Continuing on from my previous post... Both convolution and linear block codes can be used for error correction. The main benefits I gathered from using convolutional codes is that, it's easy to ...