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Questions tagged [complexity-classes]

Questions about relationships between complexity classes.

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Changing probabilities to 0/1 in definition of class IP

A language $L$ belongs to $\mathbf{IP}$ if there exists $V,P$ such that for all $Q$, $w$, $$w\in L\Rightarrow Pr[V\leftrightarrow P\text{ accepts }w]\geq2/3$$ $$w\notin L\Rightarrow Pr[V\...
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If $NP\subseteq DTIME[n^{O(\log n)}]$ then what happens?

If $NP\subseteq DTIME[n^{O(\log n)}]$ then what happens? Does it imply $NP\neq EXP$? Is there any other consequences such as $BPP\neq EXP$? Does it also give $PSPACE\subseteq DTIME[n^{O(\log n)}]$?
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Reduction of complement from complexity class co-np and p

Let P $ \neq $ NP. D is in the complexity class co-NP. B is in the complexity class P. Let $ \bar{D} $ be the complement of D, then $\bar{D} $ $\leq _ {p} $ B. Is this statement true or false? My ...
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Show: “Checking no solution for system of linear equations with integer variables and coefficients” $\in \mathbf{NP}$

I've been struggling for a while trying to solve this problem: Show that the following problem is in $\mathbf{NP}$: Check that a system of linear equations with $m$ integer variables and integer ...
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Proof of proposition between Precise Turing Machine and Proper Complexity function

In "Computational Complexity" textbook by C. H. Papadimitriou, p. 141, he proved the following claim. Proposition 7.1: Let there be a DTM/NDTM M that decides a language L within time/space $f(n)$, ...
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NP-hardness does not imply lower bound, strictly speaking?

A problem is NP-hard iff every NP problem can be polynomially-time reduced to it. Hardness is often intuitively explained as a lower bound. But it isn't, strictly ...
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$NC$ and $FNC$ oracles low for functional and Stockemeyer classes respectively?

We know $P^{NC}=P$ and $FP^{FNC}=FP$ hold. Do $FP^{NC}=FP$ and $P^{FNC}=P$ hold?
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Alternative formulation of complexity class $BPP$

In Aurora and Barak, they give the following alternative definition of $BPP$: What is the meaning of the subscript to $Pr$? Is that $Pr_{r \in_R \{0,1\}^{p(|x|)}}$? My guess is this is supposed to ...
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Other problems in UP and co-UP

Are there any known problems in $UP \cap co-UP$ other than integer factorization and parity games (or a problem that can be reduced in polynomial time to either problem), that aren't known to be in $P$...
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Why all problems are not in P complexity?

İf Somebody wants to play perfect chess.I consider for finding solution to this problem,possible minimum data compression method which describes with 10 bit maximum possible data is in the range of 2^...
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Complexity class without fixed-poly size circuit

$PP$ is shown to have no fixed-poly size circuit by Vinodchandran. Bounded inside the polynomial hierarchy, $\Sigma^2_p$ is also shown to possess no fixed-poly size circuit by Kannan. In notation, ...
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$\mathbb{NEXP\subseteq(NEXP\cap coNEXP)/poly}\implies \mathbb{NEXP=NEXP\cap coNEXP}$

We already know that $NEXP\subseteq EXP/poly\implies NEXP=EXP$. What if we change $EXP$ to $NEXP\cap coNEXP$. As the title states, prove the statement in the title. The original proof use the self-...
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What if an $L$-complete problem has $NC^1$ circuits? More generally, what evidence is there against $NC^1=L$?

What if an $L$-complete problem has $NC^1$ circuits? More generally, what evidence is there against $NC^1=L$?
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Relationship between complexity classes XP and W[1]?

I am reading the introductory chapter in Parameterized Algorithms by Cygan et al. and I am having some problems with the distinction between complexity classes $\mathsf{W[1]}$ and $\mathsf{XP}$. ...
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Is exponentiation in P?

I think the following problem belong to class P, but I don't know how I can prove it, could somebody help me? Inputs: two numbers $(a,b) \in \mathbb{N}$ Output: $a^b$
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Will such an algorithm be feasible, will it be considered a poly time algorithm?

Given a p-digit number n, where p is atleast 500, if we have an algorithm whose computational complexity is in the worst case, $O(p\mathrm{log}(p))$, will it be counted as a poly time algorithm ? Or ...
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Modular exponentiation running time

I read on Wikipedia that modular exponentiation can be done in polynomial time. I've a few questions regarding it (sorry if they seem a bit easy – I'm not a comp sci student). Is it poly ...
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If a language is contained in other langauge, is it of the same complexity?

If some language $L$ is in P, and some other language $K$ is contained in $L$, does that mean that $K$ is also in P? Thanks :)
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$\mathrm{strict}$-$\mathrm{SUBEXP} \subset \mathrm{P}/\mathrm{poly} \implies \mathrm{strict}$-$\mathrm{SUBEXP} \subset \mathrm{MA}$

Is anyone able to give a concise proof for the implication stated in the title? This is gonna be in stark contrast to this question. For definition of $\mathrm{strict}$-$\mathrm{SUBEXP}$, see here.
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P=NP giving a deterministic algorithm for SAT

I'm trying to prove the following problem: Prove that if $P=NP$ then there is a polynomial time algorithm for the following problem: INPUT: A boolean formula $\phi$. OUTPUT: A satisfying ...
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Hardness of $2$ edge-disjoint spanning trees decomposition

The question is clear from the title. What is the complexity of the following decision problem: Input: An undirected graph $G(V, E)$ Output: $\mathrm{YES}$ if $G$ can be decomposed into two ...
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Show that RP is closed under concatenation

I'm trying to prove the following problem: Show that $RP$ is closed under concatenation Now, let's say that the two languages are $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$ (both in $RP$). Then I accept a word iff the ...
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Looking for a problem provably not in P

My basic position is that everything is in P. Then comes the time hierachy theorem and EXP. That's easy: simulate and then diagonalize. After that comes EXP-completeness; that's difficult to swallow. ...
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Is there a complexity class “BQP without error”?

I was wondering if there is a complexity class for problems that can be solved efficiently by a quantum computer such that it always gives the right answer? For example the Deutsch-Josza algorithm ...
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What if $PSPACE$ falls to non-uniformity?

We know if every language in $EXP$ has polysize circuits, then $P\neq NP$ and $EXP=PSPACE=\Sigma_2^P\cap\Pi_2^P$. If every language in $PSPACE$ has polysize circuits, then does it give anything (note ...
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Does floor and ceiling in LP implies more than $P=NP$?

We know ability to take floor and ceiling in Linear Programming (LP) implies $P=NP$ (just apply floor and ceiling to variable in $(0,2)$ to get binary variable and from this it follows $0/1$ ...
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Is $\mathsf{DSPACE}(n)=\mathsf{DSPACE}(n/\log\log n)$?

We know that $\mathsf{DSPACE}(\log\log n) = \mathsf{DSPACE}(1)$ according to this proof. Can we claim that $\mathsf{DSPACE}(n)=\mathsf{DSPACE}(n/\log\log n)$ or something like $\mathsf{DSPACE}(n^3)=\...
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Question on time hierarchy [closed]

How can I prove that $\mathsf{DTIME}^{\mathrm{Htm}}(n^2)$ is contained in $\mathsf{DTIME}^{\mathrm{Htm}}(n^3)$? (sorry about how it is written. I mean the set of languages decided by a deterministic ...
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Do undecidable problems have no HO query? If so, could I have an example?

In descriptive complexity, HO corresponds to ELEMENTARY. ELEMENTARY is a subset of R, so therefore all HO queries are decidable. Then undecidable problems have no corresponding HO query. Is my ...
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Defining decision-problem complexity classes by counting branches of a polynomial-time NTM

This answer on another SE community discusses the concept of a "counting complexity class". As far as I can tell, the author is using that term in a slightly nonstandard way: most sources (PS format) ...
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Have any natural complexity classes been proven not to be closed under complement?

Many important (non-deterministic) complexity classes like NP are believed not to be closed under complement. But have any of them been proven not to be? I'm sure one could construct some contrived ...
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Assumption: A PSPACE-hard problem can be solved in polynomial time

Under the assumption that a PSPACE-hard problem A can be solved in polynomial time, is the following argumentation valid? Since every problem in PSPACE can be ...
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Decidability of language that contains all TM encodings that accept at least one word

I have a language that contains all encodings of the Turing machines that accept at least one word. Is this language recursive, recursively enumerable, or neither?
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Is $NP\subseteq DTIME(2^{\theta(\sqrt n)})$ never possible?

$DTIME(2^{\sqrt n})$ is not closed under polynomial changes of $n$ however $DTIME(2^{polylog(n)})$ is. So if $3SAT$ were in $DTIME(2^{polylog(n)})$ then $NP\subseteq DTIME(2^{polylog(n)})$ holds. ...
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From $P=NP$ to $NP=NL$

Does $P=NP$ implies $3SAT$ reduces to $2SAT$? If so then from $2SAT$ is $NL$-complete can we conclude $NP=NL$?
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Is it known that $AC^1 \subseteq L$?

A good exercise is to show $NC^1 \subseteq L$. (According to the complexity zoo page this was first shown by Borodin, 1977.) Although the details must be checked, the proof is simple: take the $NC^1$ ...
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Is every PSPACE-complete problem complete with respect to logspace reductions?

A remarkable feature of the reduction showing that TQBF (True Quantified Boolean Formulas) is PSPACE-complete is that it actually runs in logspace, i.e. for any $A \in \mathsf{PSPACE}$, $$ A \le_L ...
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On NP and PP in RP?

Does $NP\subseteq RP\implies NP=RP$? Does $PP\subseteq RP\implies \oplus P=NP=RP$? At least what additional minimal conditions will give truth of above?
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Complexity for nested #P?

Consider a problem such as weighted model counting for propositional logic. The problem of enumerating all models M of a logic formula ...
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Should we always think of problems higher in the polynomial hierarchy as harder than problems lower in the hierarchy?

This "research vignette" (whatever that is) claims that the polynomial hierarchy classifies problems according to a natural notion of logical complexity, and is defined with an infinite number of ...
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Comparison between MA and $P^{NP}$

I am aware that $MA \subseteq ZPP^{NP} \subseteq \Sigma_2^{P}\cap \Pi_{2}^{P}$ and also $NP^{BPP} \subseteq MA \subseteq AM \subseteq \Pi_{2}^{P}$. My question is: In this whole thing, where does $P^{...
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Is complexity class $\Sigma^1_1$ from polynomial hierarchy decidable?

It is within polynomial hierarchy so I assumed it is decidable. The picture like this further hinted in that direction. Yet, in a paper on page 2 I read Satisfiability of [...] is highly ...
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PSpace-completeness under PSpace reductions

A language $L$ is PSpace-complete, if it meets two conditions: It is in PSpace. Every other PSpace-complete language reduces to it in polynomial time. Question: suppose we change the second ...
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$UP=BPP$ implies $UP=RP$?

https://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~mihir/cse200/ss6.pdf shows $NP$ in $BPP$ implies $NP$ in $RP$ by showing $SAT$ is in $RP$ if $NP$ is in $BPP$ and since $SAT$ is $NP$ complete we have $NP$ is in $RP$. ...
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Why doesn't this put $BPP$ in $NP$?

From Sipser Gacs we know $x\in L(M)$ for a machine $M\in BPP$ $\iff$ $$\exists t_1,\dots,t_{|r|}\forall r\in\{0,1\}^{|r|}\vee_{i\in\{1,\dots,|r|\}}M(x,r\oplus t_i)=1.$$ From Adleman we know $x\in L(M)...
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On clarification of intersection of classes definition

How do you define $\oplus P\cap PP$? $L\in\oplus P$ iff $\exists\mbox{ NTM }M:\forall x,\#acc_M(x)\mod2\equiv0$. $L\in PP$ iff $\exists\mbox{ NTM }M:\forall x,\#acc_M(x)>\#rej_M(x)$. Consider ...
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$\#P$ closure under binomial coefficients? [closed]

It is quite straightforward to understand $\#P$ closure under addition and multiplication since there are canonical $NTM$ constructions. Is there illustrative non-trivial example to understand $NTM$ ...
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Why is $MOD_{p^k}P=MOD_pP$ at every prime $p$?

Complexity zoo states that $MOD_{2^k}P=MOD_2P$. It is clear that if $MOD_2P$ accepts (number of accepting paths is off) then $MOD_{2^k}P$ accepts. Why is it clear that if $MOD_2P$ rejects (number of ...
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A simple clarification on $\#P$ closure properties

What does $\#P$ closure under addition and multiplication mean? Does it mean given $NTM$s $N_1$ and $N_2$ we can create in deterministic polynomial time an $NTM$ $N_\times$ and $N_+$ such that for ...
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Is there a name for this class?

The class $C_{1,\epsilon }$ of decision problems solvable by an NP machine such that If the answer is 'yes,' at least 1/2 and at most $1-\epsilon$ of computation paths reject. If the answer is 'no,' ...