Questions tagged [context-free]

Questions about the set of languages (equivalently) described by context-free grammars or accepted by (non-deterministic) pushdown automata.

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What strategies exist for handling/resolving ambiguity in parsers?

I define a parser as a context-free grammar with semantic actions for each production. It is not defined in what order the semantic actions run, just that the semantic actions of the non-terminals in ...
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1answer
44 views

Fitting a regular grammar to strings from a PCFG: how big does it get?

Let $G=(V, \Sigma, R, S)$ be a (non regular) probabilistic context-free grammar, and $u_1, \ldots, u_n$ a set of $n$ strings generated by $G$. For finite $n$, it is always possible to find a regular ...
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1answer
21 views

Given set of grammar rules, how to find if they correspond to Context-free or unrestricted

Given set of grammar rules, how to find if they correspond to Context-free or unrestricted? Just for Understanding (don't solve the below one), eg: \begin{align} S &\rightarrow B/A, \\ 1B &\...
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73 views

How to draw NPDA for words whose number of b's is strictly more than that of a's but strictly less than twice the amount

I know that CFG for $$ \{a^{m}b^{n}\mid m\leq n\leq 2m \}$$ is $$ S\rightarrow ab/abb/aSb/aSbb $$ but I am not able to tweak it in such a way that it is strictly in between m and 2m and not equal to ...
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28 views

Construct context-free grammars that generate for the languages L(G) = {01(110)^n 10 (11)^n : n >= 0}

I have given this question as home assignment. I tried a lot to solve it but couldn't found any solution. Please help Thanks in Advance!
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1answer
73 views

Leo's deterministic reduction for Earley Parsing

I am trying to build an Earley parser using the Wikipedia pesudocode as a base, with Aycock's fix for epsilon rules as follows: ...
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19 views

Is the set of context free grammars that generate no words in co-RE? [duplicate]

Is the $\{ \langle G \rangle \mid L(G) = \emptyset \}$ recursively enumerable or co-recursively enumerable?
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1answer
28 views

Efficiency/Redundancy in Chomsky normal form

I have a context-free grammar with the following production rules, $S$ being the start symbol: $$\begin{align*} S &\to AB \\ A &\to a \\ B &\to a\end{align*}$$ Is this in Chomsky normal ...
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2answers
47 views

What is an example of a decidable language?

I know that if a language is regular or context free, the language is decidable. However, if a language is decidable does that imply that it is also regular or context free?
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1answer
80 views

How to give a context free grammar for any given language ie: a^n (ba)^m a^n

i am trying to understand Context free grammar and generate a CFG for any given language. when you're given a language , what is the best way to generate a CFG from it? are there any steps to follow ...
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123 views

Context free grammar for $\{ a^i b^n a^n \mid i \ge 0, n \ge 0 \}$

Give a context-free grammar for the following language: $\{ a^i b^n a^n \mid i \ge 0, n \ge 0 \}$ So far, this is the solution that I have been able to come up with, though I am not sure how accurate ...
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52 views

Need help understanding what co-recursively enumerable means

Lets say I have a set: $ L = \{\langle G \rangle | L(G) = \sum^{\star}\}$ and the question asks if it is co-RE. I know that if something is co-RE, it halts on every input not in L but may or may not ...
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1answer
41 views

Is the set of context free grammars that generate all words in co-RE?

Is $\{\langle G \rangle | L(G) = \sum^{\star}\}$ in co-RE? $\langle G \rangle$ is the encoding of a context free grammar. My intuition is that this is false.
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1answer
28 views

Is $L = a^{n}b^{n+m}c^{m} | n,m \geq 0$ a context free or a recursive language?

My initial thought is that L can't be context free since I can use the pumping lemma. I also don't think a grammar can be generated since it needs to keep track of the number of c's and a's. However, ...
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31 views

Given a CFL L and a regular language R, is $\overline{L} \cap R = \emptyset$ decidable or undecidable? [duplicate]

I think it is undecidable since context free languages are not closed under complementation. But I'm stuck because if $\overline{L}$ is regular than $R \cap R = \emptyset$ is decidable since every ...
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2answers
52 views

if $L_1$ and $L_2$ are languages over the same alphabet and $L_1 \cap L_2$ is context free, at least one of them must be context free

I am having a hard time understanding if this would be true or false, can someone point me in the right direction?
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195 views

Does every infinite context free language contain an infinite regular subset?

Can someone explain to me if this is true or not?
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1answer
58 views

Is $\{ 0^p1^q0^r \mid p \neq r \}$ context-free?

Consider the following languages: $$ \begin{align*} L_1 &= \{ 0^p 1^q 0^r \mid p,q,r \ge 0 \}, \\ L_2 &= \{ 0^p 1^q 0^r \mid p,q,r \ge 0, \; p \neq r \}. \end{align*} $$ Which one of ...
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2answers
313 views

Is it decidable that a context free language contains a given regular language?

I've been asked to solve this problem, but I'm completely stuck now. Is the set $\{G \in\text{CFG} \mid L(G)\supseteq L(A) \}$ where A is DFA fixed beforehand decidable? I know I've to find a ...
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44 views

Building deterministic pushdown automaton for given grammar

I am trying to build a DPDA for the given grammar: $S \to aR$ $R \to bRT \ |\ \varepsilon$ $T \to cSR \ |\ \varepsilon$ I tried simplifying grammar first (removing null and unit productions, ...
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1answer
115 views

How prefix property of language affects the PDA

I know that every DPDA (deterministic PDA) is a PDA (more specifically, non-deterministic PDA). But I found it hard to understand, not that every DPDA is an NPDA, but some results that contradict this ...
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262 views

Prove complement a^nb^nc^n is contextfree

So the complement of L1 = {$a^{n}b^{n}c^{n}$ | n $\geq$ 1} would be L2 = {a,b,c}* \ {$a^{n}b^{n}c^{n}$ | n $\geq$ 1}. In other words, any combinations of a,b and c where we dont have an equal number ...
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Is this language context-free? $\Sigma$ = {a,b,#} L = {x1#x2#…#xk : k$\geq$2, every $x_i \in$ {a,b}* and xi $\neq$ xj for every pair i $\neq$ j} [duplicate]

Is this language context-free? $\Sigma$ = {a,b,#}, L = {x1#x2#...#xk : k$\geq$2, every $x_i \in$ {a,b}* and xi $\neq$ xj for every pair i $\neq$ j} I think it is not, because the PDA can't memorize ...
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contextfree? {w1w2 | w1,w2 $\in$ {a,b}* $\land$ |w1| = |w2| $\land$ w1 $\neq$ w2} [duplicate]

Is this language contextfree? {w1w2 | w1,w2 $\in$ {a,b}* $\land$ |w1| = |w2| $\land$ w1 $\neq$ w2}. I think it's not but can't prove it.
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Context free grammar problem with hashtag

I am trying to solve the following context free grammar problem with hashtag approach but i can't figure it out. Can anyone help please? Show a context-free grammar for the following languages: $$\{w\...
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1answer
111 views

How the language $\{a^nb^mc^nd^m | n \geq1, \ m\geq1\}$ is used to check whether formal and actual parameters are equal?

How does the language $L=\{a^nb^mc^nd^m \mid n \geq1, m\geq1\}$ abstract the problem of checking that the number of formal parameters in the declaration of a procedure agrees with the number of actual ...
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1answer
39 views

First Sets: If $A \to Ad\ |\ c$, what is $First(A)$?

Suppose that we have a grammar with the following rules: $$S \to Aa\ |\ b\ |\ \varepsilon\\ A \to Ad\ |\ c$$ From looking at it I already know that $First(S) = \{b, \varepsilon, c\}$. My question is:...
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Context free grammar to Chomsky's normal form

\begin{align*} S&\to AACD\\ A&\to aAb\\ C&\to aC\mid a\\ D&\to aDa\mid bdb\mid\varepsilon \end{align*} I think that this grammar is infinite so it is not possible to convert it into ...
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1answer
124 views

Does this context-free grammar generate a regular language?

Does the following set of production rules produce a regular language or not? $S \to AB \mid b $ $A \to SB$ $B \to AS \mid a$ I have generated following words with above grammar $b , baa , baaaa , ...
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Can a CFG generate an accepting configuration? - or is there a turing-recognizable CFG language that is not decidable

I could not think of a way to concisely write down my question clearly, but I'd like to ask, from Sipser's book, $ALLCFG$ is an undecidable language (where $ALLCFG$ means that $G$ is a $CFG$ that ...
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1answer
45 views

Finding a correct regex for the strings with at least two $0s$

I am learning CFGs and before that I've made a RE (Regular Expression) for the language of "all strings with at least two $0$'s over the alphabet $\Sigma = \{0,1\}$." I made this: $(0+1)^*0(0+1)^*0(0+...
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1answer
84 views

How to produce a context free grammar for this language?

I've already attempted it but I am finding it difficult to understand if this is correct. give a context free grammar for the following: $$ \{p^{3m+n}q^nr^2p^m\mid m,n\ge 0 \}$$ The answer i've ...
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1answer
59 views

Reusing variable in converting grammar to Chomsky Normal Form

I'm not sure if reusing variable is allowed in CNF. For example, I have this grammar not in CNF. So I have to convert it to CNF. ...
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1answer
32 views

Strings which are not in a language generated by a Grammar

I have the following question and its solution Here T -> XTX since T -> X and X->b S ->XbX since X->a S->aba So,why is option 3 not accepted ?
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433 views

PDA of the language where the number of a's are NOT equal to the number of b's

I have this NPDA for language L = {w: num_a(w) == num_b(w)} all loops in q1 ...
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0answers
152 views

How to design a LL(1) grammar for basic regular expression?

I try to design a LL(1) grammar to parse the basic regular expression. Here's the origin grammar.(\| is the escape character, since | is a special character in grammar's pattern). ...
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1answer
64 views

context free grammar for palindrome: $L_n = \{x \in \Sigma^* | x = ywz, w^R = w, |w| \geq n, |y| = |z| \}$

Let $L_{n} = \{x \in \Sigma^* | x = ywz, w^R = w, |w| \geq n, |y| = |z| \}$ Generate a cfg of $L_n$ For n = 1, 2, 3 Informally, x is in $L_n$ means some palindrome of at least length n is a ...
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86 views

What is the simplest automaton that can compute the sum of two integers of arbitrary length?

It should be obvious that a Turing machine is capable of computing the sum of two integers. However, what is the simplest automaton that can compute the sum of two integers of arbitrary length? I ...
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2answers
79 views

Justification for the pumping lemma of context free languages

I understand intuitively why the pumping lemma for regular languages must hold. That is to recognize a infinite string with a finite amount of states you must repeat states and you can "pump" those ...
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1answer
85 views

How to eliminate ambiguity of the follwing CFG?

Consider the following CFG: $S\to AED | F \\ A \to Aa | a\\ B \to Bb | b\\ C \to Cc | c\\ D \to Dd | d\\ E \to bEc | bc\\ F \to aFd | BC$ The CFG produces $a^*bbb...ccc...d^*$ (equal number of b,...
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1answer
60 views

Is SAT known to be non-context-free or even non-regular?

We have seen various languages proven to be outside of REG and CFL by corresponding pumping lemmas. Has something similar been done for SAT?
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655 views

Does a notion of a context-free complete language exist?

Is there a notion of a context-free complete language (in the analogous sense to a $NP$-complete language)?
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Why can't exhaustive search parsing stop after |w| + 1 derivations?

If my grammar does not have productions of the form $A\rightarrow\lambda$ and $A\rightarrow B$ for some variables $A$ and $B$ then I know that each step in the derivation must involve an increase in ...
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3answers
253 views

Is the union of 2 non context free languages always non context free?

Let $L_1 = \{a^nb^nc^n\}$ and $L_2 = \{a^ib^jc^k \mid i\ne j\text{ or }j\ne k\}$ (which I think is a non Context free but I am not sure) So, $L_1 \cup L_2$ will give $L_3 = \{a^*b^*c^*\}$ which is a ...
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1answer
21 views

Describing the Language of a grammar in set theoretic notation where the length of strings need to be remembered

I am not well versed in this topic so please pardon any ambiguous notation. I am trying to describe the language of this grammar in set-theoretic notation. The Grammar is given by: $ S \rightarrow ...
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1answer
55 views

Designing a context free grammar for a language; When to use the empty string

$L= \{a^{2i}b^{j}vc^{j}(ac)^{i} | i,j \ge 0, v \in \{a,b\}^*\}$ over the alphabet $\Sigma = \{a,b,c\}$ How can a grammar be created from the language without the use of the empty string. Below is my ...
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4answers
308 views

Is there a *simple* proof that the intersection of a CFL and a regular language is a CFL?

I am following a course on complexity theory where languages are a part of the course. There is a proof that no matter how hard I try to understand, it is till so complex that I cannot make it to half ...
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1answer
36 views

Prove or disprove if L is CFL? [duplicate]

Given $L=\{a^ib^jc^k | i\neq j \space and \space j=k\}$. Is this CFL? How do I write CFG for it or prove it with pumping lemma? Thanks.
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1answer
146 views

How to prove prove $L(G) = \{~w\in\{a,b\}^*~|~\#_aw= \#_bw\}$ for my CFG $G$?

For language $L = \{ x \in \{a,b\}^* \mid \#_a x = \#_b x \}$, I came up with the following CFG: $$S \rightarrow aSbS \mid bSaS \mid \varepsilon.$$ It can be easily shown that it is correct (quick ...
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0answers
83 views

Is $\{a^mb^nc^{mn}\mid m>n\}$ a context-free language? [duplicate]

Been trying to figure it out for an hour myself and another hour looking around, I cannot find anything with the $c^{mn}$ part. $$L=\{a^mb^nc^{mn}\mid m>n\}$$