Questions tagged [coq]

Coq is an interactive theorem prover based on the Calculus of Inductive Constructions.

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How do program types such as natural numbers figure into the Curry-Howard Isomorphism?

In Coq, the nat, the type of natural numbers, has type Set. By the Curry-Howard Isomorphism, all propositions of type ...
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What are the differences between LCF's Theorem and Automath's Prop?

How are the fundamental approaches to proving theorems by LCF and Automath different? Considering their modern descendants - Isabelle for LCF and Coq for Automath, both rely on type checking to do ...
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Why discriminate the base case allows me to complete the induction proof?

I have a successful completed proof which used induction. but I essentially proved the goal on the base case by tactic discriminate. Why is this induction proof ...
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Is there a tactic to help resolving existential quantifiers in Coq?

I am working on Software Foundations Volume 1 on my own it is its 2019 version by the way, and I have reached to its lesson Inductively Defined Propositions, and there, for almost one month I have ...
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why is behaviour of simpl differ so much after a commutative operation and how to inspect simpl?

In Coq, while trying to prove a lemma mult_n_Sm for mult_comm, I have this equation in a proof: ...
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Why isn't plus_assoc rewriting correctly?

First I have plus_assoc ready. Theorem plus_assoc : forall n m p : nat, n + (m + p) = (n + m) + p. for simplicity we omit the ...
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Can HOL be simulated in the CiC?

I was wondering if HOL (higher-order logic) can be simulated in the Calculus of Inductive constructions (CiC)
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Difference between the logic and the type system of a proof assistant?

In Comparing Mathematical Provers (section 4.1), Wiedijk classifies logics and type systems of different proof assistants? I do not see what he means by type system of the assistant. He only says: A ...
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Instantiating a class with a sig'd type in Coq

I can easily define a class that corresponds to the notion of a "monoidal structure" on a type M via ...
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How to prove transitivity of < (Software Foundations exercise)?

I'm working through the "Properties of Relations" chapter of Software Foundations, but have got stuck on one of the exercises, lt_trans'': ...
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on coq: Why is the proof complete after proving only for one induction when we have more than one variable?

So I'm learning coq. And I came across the proof for associativity in addition forall (a b c : nat) Appearntly when we do ...
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What can we have in exchange if we drop subtyping from definition of Calculus of Inductive Constructions?

If we remove subtyping (https://coq.inria.fr/distrib/current/refman/language/cic.html#subtyping-rules) from CIC we will lose some expressive power. But is that power necessary for a programming ...
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When can the coinduction hypothesis be used?

We can use the induction hypothesis when we are proving a property for a structure that is well-ordered. I am aware that there is a proof for this. When it comes to coinduction, I'm confused. One of ...
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Struggling with this Coq Proof

Fixpoint intersection (l1 l2 : natset) : natset := match l1 with | [] => [] | h :: t => if member h l2 then insert h intersection t l2 else intersection t l2 end. I need to write an ...
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Stuck on proof in Coq

This is an exercise from Software foundations for my discrete math & functional programming class. I am a little stuck with the end of the code because it works for the first two examples but it ...
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Proving with co-induction principles

I'm going through Adam Chlipala's "Certified Programming with Dependent Types" (available here for convenience), and I'm a bit stuck at internalizing the introduction of co-induction principle for the ...
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Why does Coq include let-expressions in its core language

Coq includes let-expressions in its core language. We can translate let-expressions to applications like this: let x : t = v in b ~> (\(x:t). b) v I understand ...
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For proof automation in Coq, when is it appropriate to use canonical structures or Equations instead of Ltac?

There are a few possible approaches to proof automation in modern Coq. Writing proof scripts with Ltac. This is the approach described in http://adam.chlipala.net/cpdt/, which the author uses to ...
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What types are propositions?

In the propositions-as-types paradigm, we are still faced with the question : what types are propositions ? I currently know 3 different answers : Coq's sort Prop ...
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How does one know what statements in Coq require Induction?

I was trying to learn Coq using the famous book Software Foundations. In it I found the following: ...
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How does this use of “apply” in Coq work?

I'm working my way through software foundations. In the Chapter titled "Tactics", I'm able to prove this theorem in Coq: ...
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An instance when you can eliminate propositional double negation in coq

Suppose st: string -> nat and X stands for the string 'X'. Given the hypothesis ...
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Understanding the definition of Positivity Constraints in Coq

In Interactive Theorem Proving and Program Development the authors explain constraints on constructors of inductive types in Coq. For inductive type $T$, a constructor must have the form $t_1 \...
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Proving parametricity for Gallina functions

I have the following definitions Definition nat'' {X : Type} := (X -> X) -> X -> X. Definition nat' := forall (X : Type), @nat'' X. And when I wanted to ...
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What are the implications of Lean not having the type `Set`?

In Coq we have an impredicative base type, called Prop, and a predicative base type, called Set, both of type ...
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How CompCert “proves” different things in its codebase

In order to understand examples of formal proofs, I am interested in how CompCert applies "proof" techniques. Specifically, I am wondering what a particular example is of something CompCert "proves" ...
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Why does substitution terminate?

I'm formalizing some properties of lambda calculus in Coq and I have some problems proving termination of substitution. My terms are defined as: ...
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Is impredicative Set consistent with the excluded middle?

While studying Coq, I found a few references that impredicative Set might not work well with classical axioms, in particular the axiom of choice. I'm working on a dependent type system based on the ...
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Monadic Second Order Logic for Dummies

I am programmer with a grip on automata, but not on logic. I read in papers that the two are very tightly related. Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA), Tree Automata and Visibly Pushdown Automata are ...
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In Coq, what does it mean to have an inductive type where the right-hand side of “:” is Prop?

I'm new to Coq, and my (rather limited) understanding is that inductive types are like algebraic datatypes in Haskell, so there is a constructor data T = A a with ...
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positivity condition in Coq/CIC

I am recently learning the theory behind Coq and learnt that positivity condition guarantees termination of the program. But my question is, what would you think of the following definition? ...
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What does instantiating existential variables with out of scope variable imply?

I have following unfinished proof of a lemma: ...
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What is different between Set and Type in Coq? [closed]

AFAIU types can be a Set whose elements are programs or a proposition whose elements are Proofs. So based on this understanding: ...
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Is possible to prove undecidability of the halting problem in Coq?

I was watching the "Five Stages of Accepting Constructive Mathematics" by Andrej Bauer and he says that there is two kinds of proof by contradiction (or two things that mathematicians call proof by ...
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How to prove T Z = Z for binary representation of natural numbers in Coq

I have defined an Inductive in Coq for binary representation of natural numbers as follows: ...
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I don't know how to prove a simple theorem used with fixpoint in Coq

I am a beginner in coq and want to prove the following theorem t1. First I used induction i and destruct j, but it got bogged ...
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Type Theory and Principia Mathematica Part IV “Relation Arithmetic”

As type theory is a principle focus of modern computer science, its origins are in Bertrand Russel's theory of types, Principia Mathematica is both the origin of and is expressed in the theory of ...
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Why are recursive types needed as primitives for proofs in dependent type systems?

I'm relatively new to type theory and dependent programming. I've been studying the calculus of constructions (CoC) and other pure type systems. I'm particularly interested in using it as a proof-...
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Proving tautology with coq

Currently I have to learn Coq and don't know how to deal with an or : As an example, as simple as it is, I don't see how to prove: ...
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Is extensionality for coinductive datatypes consistent with Coq's logic?

Given a coinductive datatype, one can usually (always?) define a bisimulation as the largest equivalence relation over it. I would like to add an axiom stating that if two members of the type are ...
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273 views

Proof of equality with destructuring let…in

I have some expression (f n in the example below) returning a tuple. I would like to prove that f n is equal to ...
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Substituting two different identifiers with the same identifier in Coq - why does this work?

I'm playing around with Coq and Software Foundations and is somehow very confused by something I took for granted since forever. To prove ...
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Formalizing basic category theory in Coq

I'm a total beginner in Coq and I'm trying to implement some category theory stuff as an exercise. I surfed a little among git repos of the many avaible such implementations (HoTT, Awodey's Coq ...
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Is the strictly positive condition in Coq and Agda an aproximation?

Languages like Coq and Agda enforce that their inductive types occur "strictly positively" in their definitions. That is, the type should not occur to the left of an arrow of an argument of a ...
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Main differences between intuitionistic type theory and calculus of constructions (CoC)

Quoting Wikipedia "Many systems of type theory, such as the simply-typed lambda calculus, intuitionistic type theory, and the calculus of constructions, are also programming languages." I'm a Coq user ...
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Algorithmic type checking for Calculus of Inductive Constructions

So from reading "Advanced Topics in Types and Programming Languages" (ATTPL) I know of the calculus of constructions (CoC). It also presents the "algorithmic" type checking rules. Reading Coq's ...
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Importance of indexes in Type(i) in calculus of inductive constructions [duplicate]

So I am reading about the calculus of inductive constructions. And I see here and here that there hidden indexes that the user does not know about in the $Type$ sort. It says that they are ...
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Standard constructive definitions of integers, rationals, and reals?

Natural numbers are defined inductively as (using Coq syntax as an example) Inductive nat: Set := | O: nat | S: nat -> nat. Is there a standard way to define ...
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Simple question COQ

I'm a beginner in the coq proof assistant, so sorry if my question is silly. I would like to prove properties of a mathematical object. For clarity I will describe an over-simplified version of my ...
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baz_num_elts exercise from Software Foundations

I'm at the following exercise in Software Foundations: ...