Questions tagged [counting]

The term Counting in Computer Science is usually used to refer to counting objects in certain arrangements or with certain properties.

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29
votes
5answers
5k views

Boolean search explained

My mother is taking some online course in order to be a librarian of sorts, in this course they cover boolean searches, so they can search databases efficiently, however, she got a question sounding ...
14
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1answer
507 views

Why is the counting variant of a hard decision problem not automatically hard?

It is well-known that 2-SAT is in P. However, it seems quite interesting that counting the number of solutions to a given 2-SAT formula, i.e., #2-SAT is #P-hard. That is, we have an example of a ...
11
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2answers
171 views

Does #$P$-Completeness imply approximation hardness?

Let $\Pi$ be some counting problem which is known to be #$P$-Complete. Does it imply that $\Pi$ is $APX$-hard (i.e. no PTAS for the problem exists unless $P=NP$)?
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2answers
1k views

Counting islands in Boolean matrices

Given an $n \times m$ Boolean matrix $\mathrm X$, let $0$ entries represent the sea and $1$ entries represent land. Define an island as vertically or horizontally (but not diagonally) adjacent $1$ ...
8
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3answers
2k views

Finding all solutions to an integer linear programming (ILP) problem

My problem is to find all integer solutions to an ILP. As an example, I'm using an ILP with two variables, but I may have more than two variables. I describe the method I currently use to solve this ...
8
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1answer
565 views

Algorithm to find all acyclic orientations of a graph

I am working on acyclic orientations of undirected graphs and have the following questions: Given connected undirected simple graph $G$, how to find all possible acyclic orientations of $G$ ? What ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Counting the number of words accepted by an acyclic NFA

Let $M$ be an acyclic NFA. Since $M$ is acyclic, $L(M)$ is finite. Can we compute $|L(M)|$ in polynomial time? If not, can we approximate it? Note that the number of words is not the same as the ...
7
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1answer
121 views

Applications of model counting

I have been reading about model counting, a.k.a. the #SAT problem. What are the practical applications, if any, of this problem, and how exactly do they reduce to it? I have been unable to find any, ...
7
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1answer
275 views

Does $\#W$[1]-hardness imply approximation hardness?

Let $\Pi$ be a parametrized counting problem, where the parameter is the solution cost, e.g. counting the number of $k$-sized vertex cover in a graph, parametrized by $k$. Assume that $\Pi$ is $\#W$[...
7
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2answers
133 views

numerical integral vs counting roots

I have a problem that can be viewed in two different ways: Compute an $n$-dimensional integral, numerical context. The domain of integration is an $n$-dimensional hyper-cube of side $L$. Count (just ...
7
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2answers
1k views

Count of distinct substrings in string inside range

Having string $S$ of length $n$, finding the count of distinct substrings can be done in linear time using LCP array. Instead of asking for unique substrings count in whole string $S$, query $q$ ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Counting substrings with a given number of different characters in O(N)

Given a string $S$ of length $n$, and a number $k$, count the number of substrings (regardless of their length) that contain exactly $k$ different characters. The obvious solution takes $O(n^2)$ time ...
5
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2answers
301 views

Finding the number of square prefixes of a string in linear time

Let square denote a concatenation of two identical, nonempty strings. Given a string $w$, devise an $O(|w|)$ algorithm that counts the number of prefixes of $w$ that are squares. My initial idea ...
5
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2answers
494 views

Can counting problems have optimal substructure?

I understand that for a problem to be solvable using dynamic programming, it needs to have the following properties: optimal substructure overlapping subproblems I stumbled upon an article which ...
5
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1answer
294 views

Algorithm for a special case of SAT/#SAT

Does anyone know of an algorithm that can solve the following special case of SAT in polynomial time? Are there any algorithms that can solve the counting (#SAT) version of it in polynomial time? ...
5
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0answers
148 views

Count Wildcard Parenthesizations of a String

Let $\Sigma = \{ (, ), ? \}$ be an alphabet. For a given string $s \in \Sigma^*$, we denote by $f(s)$ the number of ways to replace each symbol $?$ either with $($ or with $)$ such that $s$ is ...
5
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0answers
644 views

Sorting in place & stable in linear time

Given an array with only 0 & 1. Can we have an algorithm which has all the following desirable characteristics- The algorithm runs in $O(n)$ time. The algorithm is stable. The algorithm sorts ...
4
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2answers
77 views

Count numbers less than $x$ co-prime to $p$

We have given two numbers $x$ and $p$. We want to count how many numbers are less than $x$ and are co-prime with $p$. I know that we can solve the problem in $O(x\log x)$ with iterating over all ...
4
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2answers
245 views

Efficient Algorithm to Find the n-th Odious Number

An odious number is defined as an integer that has odd binary Hamming weight. I need an implementation of algorithm that finds the nth odious number, preferably recursive. Any ideas? A python script ...
4
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1answer
67 views

Counting big enough elements

Let $v$ be a vector of positive integers of length $n$. I want to find the highest $k$ such as there are at least $k$ elements of $v$ that are greater or equal to $k$. What would be the best ...
4
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1answer
460 views

Proof of $P^{\text{#}P} = P^{PP}$

I was reading this article on the complexity class $PP$. In the fourth paragraph there is a claim that $P^{\text{#}P} = P^{PP}$ and that it can be proved using binary search. Can anyone please ...
4
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1answer
5k views

How to calculate an accurate estimated reading time of text?

I suppose the calculation should not be done by only two factors (average reading speed/words per minute, and word count). But at least by a third parameter, that in my opinion should measure the ...
4
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1answer
260 views

Counting the solutions to a restricted 0-1 knapsack problem

Consider the counting knapsack problem $\mathsf{\#IDKNAP}$ : Input: $n \in \mathbb{Z_+}$, $s \in \mathbb{Q}_+$, where $s$ is represented by a fraction $\frac{p}{q}$ in its lowest terms. Output: ...
4
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3answers
190 views

Sum of unique elements in all sub-arrays of an array

Given an array $A$, sum the number of unique elements for each sub-array of $A$. If $A = \{1, 2, 1, 3\}$ the desired sum is $18$. Subarrays: ...
3
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1answer
34 views

Given a set of intervals $(I_n)_n$ contained in $[0, L]$, compute the longest interval in $[0, L]$ which has empty intersection with all $(I_n)_n$

Let be $(I_n)_n$ a set of $p$ intervals each contained in $[0, L]$ for $L \geq 1$. I define $(J_n = [a_n, b_n])_n$ the set of intervals which have empty intersection with $I_n$ for all $n \in [[1, p]]...
3
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1answer
134 views

When does the IEEE-754 64-bit float break as a counter

As a matter of curiosity I've been trying to determine at what point a 64-bit float no longer reflects the addition of 1 as expected; that is, at what point the digits as printed do not correspond to ...
3
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2answers
4k views

Number of binary trees with given height

I was wondering how many binary trees we have with height of $h$ with $n$ nodes(another question is how many binary trees we have with height $ \lfloor{lg (n)}\rfloor$). Edit: I forgot to add the ...
3
votes
2answers
119 views

Fastest algorithm to find all the possible paths of length $n$ from a give node in a directed graph?

I am trying to find the fastest algorithm to find all the possible paths of length $N$ from a given node in a directed graph. My solution is to do a modification of breadth first search from the ...
3
votes
1answer
176 views

Counting on a matrix

I have an $n \times m$ matrix, and fill it with numbers of $1 \dots k$. If a matrix can be turned into another matrix by exchanging its lines and exchanging its columns, the two matrices are ...
3
votes
2answers
142 views

What's the value of this game (rebalancing counters)?

Suppose you have the following game: There are infinitely many counters $\{c_1,c_2,\ldots\}$, all initialized to 0. In each step, you may choose a counter $c_i$ and increase it's value by 1. ...
3
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1answer
240 views

How many different trees can we form from given graph?

I'm trying to practice some combinatorics and I faced this problem, let's say we have given graph with N nodes and M edges. $$N\leq500, M \leq N\cdot(N - 1)/2$$ In this graph I want to count the sub-...
3
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1answer
123 views

Number of states in an AND-OR DAG

Consider a DAG of $N$ nodes, where each node can take on one of two value, either false, $0$ or true, $1$. Additionally, let each non-leaf nodes (nodes with parents) be assigned a type: either an AND ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

Why does not valiant's reduction show NP=RP?

Valiant converts $SAT$ formula to a $0/1$ matrix such that $Permanent$ of the matrix is $4^m\#SAT$. We know $Permanent$ can be approximated to $1+\epsilon$ factor with probability $1-\frac1\delta$ in ...
3
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1answer
65 views

The expectation of the total number of pairs of keys in a hash table that collide using universal hashing

I am reading CLRS relating to perfect hashing. When computing the $$ \mathbb{E}[\sum_{j=0}^{m-1}{n_j\choose{2}}] $$ where $m$ is the number of slots in the hash table, and $n_j$ is the number of keys ...
3
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1answer
931 views

Radix, merge, counting sort and when to use

Okay can't figure this out. I want to make sure I understand it. There are n random keys each being float numbers with p decimal places. So, for example, 123.456, 343.645, 234.543, 863.238, 956....
3
votes
2answers
237 views

Counting the number of tree when the set of the subtrees is given

There are a set $A$ of trees. There is another set $B$ of trees that is the collection of all possible subtrees of the trees in $A$. I don't have $A$ but only have $B$, and I need to figure out the ...
3
votes
1answer
435 views

Find smallest enclosing circle

On a 2d plane, there is a large circle centered at $(0, 0)$ with a radius of $R_{{o}}$. It encloses $\sim 100$ or so smaller circles distributed randomly across the parent circle otherwise with known ...
3
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1answer
133 views

Counting words that satisfy SAT-like constraints with BDDs

I have the following #P-complete problem: Given an alphabet $\Sigma$ and a matrix $M$ where each entry can be a symbol from $\Sigma$ or the wildcard symbol $*$, find the number of strings $s$ with ...
3
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0answers
34 views

Estimating number of points in 1D space

There are some arbitrary-chosen points in 1D space. What needs to be found is the approximate number of them without counting all of them. It is possible to choose some coordinates (numbers) and for ...
3
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0answers
40 views

Does $P=PP$ or $P=PSPACE$ have consequences for algebraic class problem $VP=VNP$?

Deciding majority of counting problem is $PP$ class. Is there any relation between $PP$ and $VNP$ and is there consequence of $P=PP$ or $P=PSPACE$ to $VP=VNP$? Is there a way to show $\#P$ is in $FP^...
3
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0answers
99 views

How hard is APPROXIMATE-#SAT? [closed]

It is well known that the problem of counting the satisfying assignments of SAT, namely the problem #SAT, is #P-complete. It is also suspected (somewhat less widely) that even deciding SAT should ...
3
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0answers
32 views

Number of distinct single-assignment forms with $j$ binary function calls?

Given $n$ inputs and $k$ outputs and $j$ identical binary function calls to $g$, how many possible distinct single-assignment forms are there? The only assumption made about $g$ is that if $a = c \...
3
votes
1answer
280 views

The most efficient algorithm for computing cardinality of sumset

Let A and B be two finite non-empty sets of positive integers. Their sumset is the set of all possible sums a + b where a is from A and b is from B. For example, if A = {1, 2} and B = {2, 3, 6} then A ...
2
votes
1answer
458 views

Count total number of k length paths in a tree

This is a question from a competitive programming competition. Given a tree with n nodes and a number k, find the total number of paths of length k in that tree. I know for a fact that a solution can ...
2
votes
3answers
172 views

Count arrays with size n, sum k and largest element m

I'm trying to solve pretty complex problem with combinatorics. Namely, we have given three numbers N, K, M. Now we want to count how many different arrays of integers are there with length N, sum K ...
2
votes
2answers
77 views

Prove that this language is NP-Hard

Given $$\mathrm{\#3SAT} = \{ (w, y) \mid w\text{ is a $\mathrm{3SAT}$ instance with at least $y$ satisfying assignments}\}\,,$$ prove that $\mathrm{\#3SAT}$ is NP-Hard. I am currently stuck with ...
2
votes
2answers
340 views

Count-min sketch

I don't understand the use case of count min sketch. Based on Count–min sketch, it says "serves as a frequency table of events in a stream of data.". If I know there are N types of events, why can't ...
2
votes
2answers
85 views

Unambiguous context-free grammar for strings with at least as many a's as b's

I have designed this Grammar but it is ambiguous: $$S\to aSbS \mid bSaS \mid aS \mid\epsilon$$ Would anyone help me make it unambiguous? Assume the alphabet is $\{a,b\}$.
2
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1answer
73 views

Counting specific subgraphs

For a given undirected graph G, I want to count all the subgraphs H that satisfies the following conditions: H.V = G.V (The subgraph will containt all the original graph nodes) H is connected (Note: ...
2
votes
1answer
6k views

Seating arrangement problem

$n$ professors go to a conference and have to sit together at a table. See illustration below for $n=8$ Each professor has people they like to sit next to and people they do not want to sit next ...