Questions tagged [databases]

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Algorithm to generate unique suggestions for creating an ID

Let's say I have a service where I provide user registration. The user chooses a ID. Now if I already have someone who is registered against that ID, I will inform the user that this ID is already ...
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Primary key's all field should contain value or not?

After reading a lot of materials related to the Primary key and Unique key, I am in doubt. Let us consider a primary key (AB) in table R (ABCDE). AB together can not be null as AB is a primary key. ...
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Is this decomposition in 3NF?

I have the following question: Consider relation R(A, B, C, D, E, F, H) with the following functional dependencies: A --> D, AE --> H, DF --> BC, E --> C, H --> E Consider three ...
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Primary File Organization in DBMS - Files of ordered records (sorted files)

"Fundamental of Database Systems", 3rd ed. by Elmasri and Navathe, page 136 says: "We can physically order the records of a file on disk based on the values of one of their fields [...]&...
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Mongodb database model for password manager app

I'm doing a school project where I have to design a password manager app. I was wondering what the data model would look like. I know that I will have the user database to store authentication ...
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How are data structures used along databases?

I just completed a Data structures and Algorithms course in my university. I know how data structures work and how different DS are used to solve specific and to improve efficiency. I have also ...
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Advantages to create Male and Female entities separate from User rather than making gender a property in a database?

The screenshot is from Georgia Tech's CS-6400. The instructor was talking about inheritance of Sub-Types and Super-Types. My question is, why are Male and ...
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Efficient data structure supporting search query with contains

Suppose I have a table with millions strings in it as keys. What data structure can I use in order to efficiently support only queries like that? ...
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Sparse indexing and dense clustering indexing?

I was reading about indexing. There I found that sparse indexing means for each unique value there would be only one entry in the index file and for dense indexing, there would be an entry in the ...
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Can a conflict serializable schedule be irrecoverable?

According to this image taken from wiki. If a schedule is at (1) then it is conflict serializable but not recoverable. But according to this blog. All conflict serializable schedules are recoverable. ...
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What does it mean to 'provide' an API call?

So I have a database pre-loaded with data related to food recipes and the assignment says: 'Provide an API call that allows us to specify an ingredient or set of ingredients and return full recipes ...
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Automated Query Equivalence Solver (MongoDB)

The query-equivalence problem is undecidable. However there are theorem provers that attempt to solve instances of undecidable problems. I am curious how I could go about using an automatic theorem ...
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AVL Tree rotations

What size is the largest AVL tree for which an insertion could trigger a double rotation?
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Figuring out the equivalence between two definitions of "transitive functional dependencies" and intuition behind the intended meaning of definition

The definition given below is present in the exercise of the text Database System Concepts by Korth et. al. Let $\alpha$ and $\beta$ be sets of attributes such that $\alpha \rightarrow \beta$ holds, ...
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Is this a mistake in the textbook? Fundamentals of Database Systems 7th ed

Aggregation is an abstraction concept for building composite objects from their component objects. ... the possibility of combining objects that are related by a particular relationship instance into ...
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Are there some database models (or possibly data structures) which implement some aspects of relational algebra without using SQL?

Are there some database models (or possibly data structures) which implement some aspects of relational algebra without using SQL? More precisely, are there some RDMS which use the host language as a ...
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where to get detailed information about some file format?

i want to learn about the structure of a .blk file but the problem is I don't know where to look for detailed information of this sort, most of the google searches I made gave me links to viewers.
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Creating a database of math questions and of answers and a front end for them

Need some guidance on where to begin. I am just learning python if it has any bearing. I want to create a page on my site where users log in, choose multiple topics from a list, choose between levels ...
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Explain how a text retrieval db & query differs from a document db and query and which do I need?

To any and all, I am in need of either a text retrieval database, a document database, a hybrid database, something custom, or perhaps something else. I am asking for someone to explain the ...
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Can a Non-Prime attribute functionally determine a Prime attribute?

In Relational Databases, Prime attributes are defined as the attributes that are a subset of any candidate key. Thus, the attributes that are not a subset of any candidate key are Non-Prime. My ...
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How to simplify the query qualification?

Given the following DB and query : Now if we need to simplify the query qualification, here is the answer from the book (Principle of distributed database systems, third edition) : My question is in ...
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First normal form

I am confused about an aspect of the definition of first normal form in relational database model. Codd 1970 ("A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks") defines normalization (...
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constant relation in the base case of relational algebra

in the base case of the inductive definition of the operations of the relational algebra there is also the so called "constant relation" (as for example found in the definition here https://...
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What is meant by A determine BC in functional dependency. How the validity of this statement will be checked

We use notation A determines BC in a database for functional dependency. Same way we use equations in mathematics which shows dependency of variables. We have inference rules in logics, functions in ...
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In database buffering why is it important : no writes to a block (which is to be moved from the disk buffer section of main memory) be in progress?

I was going through the concept of database buffering from the Database System Concepts text by Korth et. al where I came across the excerpt below. The rules for the output of log records limit the ...
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WAL rule requires only the undo information in the log have been output to stable storage, and permits the redo information to be written later

I was going through the "write-ahead logging (WAL) rule" from the Database System Concepts text by Korth et. al, where I came across the following excerpt: Strictly speaking, the WAL rule ...
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Is there computer for specify purpose that perform database task?

Is database server really really exist? i mean the server wasn't made by general purpose computer but that database device have their own hardware and architecture. We know that good database server ...
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Algorithm to calculate the period where cumulative days within a rolling period exceeds a threshold

I'm struggling to think of the algorithm to transform one data set to another. The problem I'm looking at is creating a dataset of periods of time where cumulative days absent within a period (eg 30 ...
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Which of the query approaches are more efficient?

There are two relations, registered(participant,topic) and fee(participant,amount). The primary key for registered is (participant, topic) and the primary key for fee is participant. The premise is ...
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1 vote
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Data model and database schema

I need to test my understanding of the difference between the data model and database schema. According to my understanding, the data model is a description of how the data will be stored and the ...
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Database Access Cost Estimate - Linear Search over non-key attribute

How does one estimate the access cost for the below query given that the data is sorted according to a non-key attribute, that the data is not uniformly distributed across all possible values of said ...
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What is the difference between a state machine and a database

I didn't study computer science as a degree, so whilst having studied computer science, there are still gaps in my knowledge. Everything I read about 'state' sounds like some form of 'data' but kept ...
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If a user confirmed a booking or transaction on the database system, but it failed and it falls over to the replica, what if the transaction is lost?

This is an overall system design and DBMS question: If the user books a ticket or an item on a website, how do we solve the issue of confirming a ticket is sold to the user, but the main Database ...
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How attributes helps us to allow column interchange in a relational database?

A relation on two sets $A$ and $B$ is defined as the subset of the cartesian product $$A\times B = \{(a,b),\ a \in A, b \in B\}$$ A database is also a relation and each entry is an ordered tuple ...
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Is Neo4J computationally equivalent to relational algebra

I am wondering whether Neo4j and the associated Cypher query language is computationally equivalent to relational algebra? Any ideas or papers on that topic?
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Relation is in 2NF or not?

Consider a relation R(A,B,C,D,E) and the only FDs, ABD->C BC->D CD->E These are the only 3 FDs. I want to know if the above relation is in 2NF or not. According to the definition of 2NF, a ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Resources about implementing a database table

I'd like to understand more how data can be stored on disk so it can be read quickly. I don't want to say database record because I'm not asking how to build a database. My question is closer to how ...
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Find number of candidate keys given non-trivial functional dependency X->Y, where X is some set of attributes and Y is some prime attribute

In a relation R, if X is some set of attributes and Y is some prime attribute such that X uniquely determines Y is a non-trivial FD. Then is it true that R has at least two candidate keys? For ...
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External Sorting - Calculate passes with different number of disks

Let suppose that we have a file with n = 10^6 records. The block size is B = 10 records and we have available main memory m = 20 blocks. (Sorting with MergeSort) a) If we have 1 disk find minimum ...
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Is persistence a property of a database?

I was having a discussion in another forum on this topic, and I couldn’t get a satisfactory answer. Originally, a statement was made that a redis data store couldn’t be considered a database because ...
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Does upgrading after all locks and before all unlocks violate 2PL?

2PL's rule says: Upgrading of lock (from S(a) to X (a)) is allowed in growing phase. But what if upgrading lies after the last lock and before the first unlock? Does it still count "in the ...
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What does mean by the independent columns in 4NF normalization?

For a table to satisfy the Fourth Normal Form, it should satisfy the following two conditions: It should be in the Boyce-Codd Normal Form. And, the table should not have any Multi-valued Dependency. ...
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Example for Database architecture

PHPMyadmin is stated as a 3 tier database architecture.How is this possible,Isn't it a 2 tier architecture.What are the real world examples of 1-tier and 2-tier architecture.
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In index allocation scheme, what parameters does the maximum size of a file depends on?

My understanding is as follows: ...
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What does the three schema architecture of DBMS refer to?

This architecture contains three layers or levels of the database management system: External level Conceptual level Internal level Can some one explain to me with a practical real example so that ...
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how two phase commit ensure serializability

Two phase commit is used in distributed transaction. For example, a client sends a transaction to two databases with a coordinator. step1: client get a global transaction id from coordinator step2: ...
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Bits needed to send parameters of perfect hash functions

Suppose that there is a server that has $n$ files. The server is used to construct a perfect hash function for those files and then the computed parameters will be sent to a user. These parameters ...
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Efficiently storing and modifying a reorderable data structure in a database

I'm trying to create a list curation web app. One thing that's important to me is being able to drag-and-drop reorder items in the list easily. At first I thought I could just store the order of each ...
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Databases and B-Trees: What are Keys and how are they related

I confused about the description & definition of "key" occuring as terminology for databases and b-trees. In first case dealing with theory of databases a key is defined as a choice for ...
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What is the maximum number of indices one can create on a table with N columns?

Say, I have a database table with $N$ columns. What is the (theoretical) maximum number of indices I can create on that table? For $N = 1,2,3$ it's easy enough to calculate the answer $(1, 4, 15)$, ...
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