Questions tagged [discrete-mathematics]

Questions about discrete mathematics, the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

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84 views

What is the meaning of the pipe symbol here?

I am reading Distributed Algorithms by Nancy Lynch. In chapter 16, I came across the pipe symbol. Does this mean the same as "or" in some programming languages or could someone explain that ...
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43 views

What does x sign mean in functions

I came across this cross sign when reading a book. Does anyone know what does this mean in the context of a function?
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25 views

What is the difference between problem solving and theorem proving?Is mathematics problem solving or theorem proving?

Some books of permutation and combinations ,theorems are to proved while in some book problem is to be solved using logic.
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37 views

Upper bound of $nc^n$

Is it true that $nc^n \leq (c+1)^n$, where $c$ is a constant? If so, how?
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21 views

A proof that if f is the heaviest edge in weight from all the other edges in the circle which it is a part of, then f will not participate in any MST

I cant proof that if f is the heaviest edge in weight from all the other edges in the circle which it is a part of, then f will not participate in any Minimum Spanning Tree. please help.
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16 views

Mapping reduction properties exercise

I am having trouble understanding how to conclude if the statements are true or false, I would really appreciate your help. We know about three languages, A, B and C. There exists a mapping reduction ...
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1answer
427 views

What is the meaning of this symbol that looks like an inverted uppercase A?

I found this symbol in a book I'm reading. Does anyone know what this symbol means? Does it mean for all js?
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1answer
98 views

Invariant vs Assertion vs lemma

I am reading Distributed Algorithms by Nancy Lynch. I have come across lemmas, assertions and invariants, but I do not understand the difference between them. I think lemma means an intermediate ...
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1answer
179 views

Disconnected bipartite graph

I was searching whether a bipartite graph can have a vertex with 0 degree. I found this, but the answer there says it is possible. Wouldn't that make a graph tripartite? Also, if a vertex with zero ...
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0answers
22 views

Maximum number of edges with k components

Given $N$ vertices and $K$ components what is the maximum number of edges that may exists ? I just got gut instinct that it will be maximum if we take one set with $k-1$ vertices and this will have no ...
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25 views

Selecting sets that maximise the cardinality of the union minus the cardinality of the difference

I have a sparse $60000\times10000$ matrix where each element is either a $1$ or $0$ as follows. $$M=\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 & 1 & \cdots & 1 \\1 & 1 & 0 & \cdots & 1 \\0 &...
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17 views

Selecting five binary vectors that when multiplied elementwise are most similar to another vector

I have a sparse $60000\times10000$ matrix where each element is either a $1$ or $0$ as follows. $$M=\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 & 1 & \cdots & 1 \\1 & 1 & 0 & \cdots & 1 \\0 &...
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1answer
29 views

How do you prove that a solution to the 0-1 knapsack problem is optimal?

Given a boolean vector b representing a solution to the knapsack problem with n elements k capacity and where each element has integer weight and value. Proving that the solution is a solution is ...
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35 views

What is the formal mathematical model of a register machine?

I have been searching the web for a mathematical model of a register machine and have fallen short. The closest I have found is found here: But I am looking for more detail than what is provided ...
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20 views

How does the railway model of computation get translated to motion on the heptagrid tiling of the hyperbolic plane?

I have been reading these, along with slowly chipping away at the two books Margenstern has produced: A universal cellular automaton in the hyperbolic plane A Universal Cellular Automaton on the ...
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1answer
47 views

Iteration Vs Induction Method

I am working on different methods to solve Recurrence Relations. I am using Iteration method and substitution method, which involves Induction, but I feel that sometimes Induction method creates a bit ...
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1answer
38 views

Marks that are impossible to obtain?

There is an exam and the marking pattern is - 0 marks - Unattempted 4 marks - Correct Answer -1 marks - Incorrect Answer And total number of question is 30. ...
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2answers
89 views

Is this a general compression algorithm?

I'm aware that an algorithm that compresses every input doesn't exist (by the pigeonhole principle), however I tend to think about the problem sometimes and I came up with a (flawed, but why?) idea: ...
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1answer
50 views

a lower bound for the maximum fraction of matchings not containing an edge

I am trying to prove the following statement (from book, page 317): Let $G(A,B,E)$ be a bipartite graph, where $A$ and $B$ are the two disjoint sets of vertices s.t. $|A|=|B|=n$. Let the number of ...
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50 views

Solve the following recurrence

I'm trying to solve this the recurrence : $$ T(n)=\begin{cases} 1, & \text{ if } n = 1 \\ T(n-1) +n(n-1), & \text{ if } n \geq 2 \end{cases} $$
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18 views

In a DAG, what is the name of the process replacing no branch path with a single vertex

In my work, I meet a process for DAG, and need to explain it in my report. So, I would like to know the name of the process. The process is very simple. The vertices of degree two except roots and ...
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3answers
105 views

Primes not dividing sequence $a_{n+1} = 1 + a_0 a_1 \cdots a_n$

Prove that there are infinitely many primes that divide none of the elements of the integer sequence $a_{n+1} =1+a_0 a_1 \cdots a_n$, with a starting point of $a_0 \geq 0$. I thought about $$\log (...
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1answer
52 views

Question about generating functions

$A(x)$ is generating function of $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ and $B(x)$ is generating function of $\{b_n\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$, what is $$A(x^2)+xB(x^2)$$?
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25 views

Search for specific element in sorted array

Given sorted array $A[1..n]$. We want to find an element such that $A[i]=3i+2$ in $O(\log n)$(binary search). I trying to relate to problem finding element in sorted array $A$ such that $A[i]=i$, ...
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38 views

A problem in proving with induction

According to asked question in this post. Suppose $T(n,k)=T(n-1,k-1)+T(n-1,k)+1$, now let $C(n,k)=T(n,k)+1$. As a result $C(n,k)=C(n-1,k-1)+C(n-1,k)$. I want to prove $C(n,k)=2\binom{n}{k}$, now on ...
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1answer
65 views

Greedy algorithm for maintaining drugs

Given $n$ drugs such that each drug $d_i$ should maintain in interval $[c_i,h_i]$.We want to minimize number of containers to maintain medicines in compatible interval. My answer is as follows: I use ...
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41 views

If possible, use binary search to find an element in sorted array

Given sorted array $A[1..n]$, we want to find an element such that, $A[i]=i^2$,Can we use binary search to find such a element? My Attempt: initially, I read this link, but I can't understand the ...
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19 views

Computer Science [duplicate]

I am trying to solve the following problem to find big-theta. I am having a lot of trouble, if anyone can help! T(n)=8T(√n)+log^2(e^n)? The logarithm is base 2 and is squared.
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48 views

Solve T(1) = 1 T(n) = T(n-1) + n^2 for n ≥ 2

I am not able to solve the following recurrence relation: $$ T(n) = \begin{cases} T(n-1) + n^2 & \text{if } n \ge 2, \\ 1 & \text{otherwise.}\\ \end{cases} $$ How do I start?
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30 views

Lower bound on $c_n = 4c_{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} + n$

Define a sequence $c_1,c_2,\dots$ by the equations $$ c_1=0, \quad c_n = 4c_{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} + n \text{ for all } n > 1. $$ Prove that $\frac{(n+1)^2}{8} < c_n$ for all $n \geq 2$. Hint: $\...
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17 views

Why can't I evaluate this L-Attributed SDD with a pre-order traversal?

My powerpoints for a compiler class says "an L-Attributed SDD can be evaluated with a pre-order (root, left, right) traversal", and to be L-Attributed the nodes need to have either ...
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2answers
145 views

Is discrete math enough for computer science ? Or there other Math topics that I should also learn With it?

I want to learn computer science, SO is discrete math enough for computer science ? Or there other Math topics that I should also learn With it ? I don’t have specific topic that I care more about ...
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1answer
35 views

Expressing a constraint of the form $\max(x_1,x_2) \ge q$ in a linear program

I am trying to solve an LP in which one of the constraints is mentioned below, $$\max(x_1,x_2) \ge q,$$ where $x_1 \ge 0$ and $x_2 \ge 0$. Is it possible to do in linear programming?
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2answers
78 views

What mathematical guarantees gives alpha-beta pruning?

In the alpha-beta pruning version of the minimax algorithm, when one evaluates a state p with $\alpha$ and $\beta$ cutoff and gets a ...
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3answers
194 views

Computing square vs computing square-root? Time complexity

I am working on something that requires checking a very large natural number $x$ to determine if it is the square root of an even larger natural number $y$. So I am wondering what are the fastest ...
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2answers
41 views

How can I show mathematically the time complexity of this function is O(N)?

int foo(N){ if(N <= 1){ return 0 }else{ return 1 + foo(N-1) } } I can tell that the time complexity of this program is O(N) but I am ...
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49 views

A necessary condition for a relation to be in 2NF but not in 3NF is that some non-prime attribute must be determined by a non-prime attribute

I will state the complete question now, since it did not fit in the title. Is the statement given below correct? A necessary condition for a relation to be in 2NF but not in 3NF is that some non-...
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2answers
41 views

Compute average case with best case

is it correct to compute the average case time complexity of an algorithm by taking the mean of the best and worst cases ? My findings : for binary search, $\frac{\log (n) +1}{2}\in \Theta \left(\log (...
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1answer
51 views

Given an undirected graph, find an orientation such that every vertex has out-degree at least 3

Given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, describe an algorithm that computes an orientation of $E$ such that each vertex has out-degree at least 3. I know how to check if a vertex $v$ has at least $k$ ...
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1answer
71 views

facts on tree and MST

We are given an Undirected, Weighted and Connected Graph $G$, (non-negative weights, all distinct) with one property that shortest path between any two vertexes on this graph is on MST. The following ...
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1answer
60 views

Find The "Best" Permutation of Inputs to Maximize Sum of Functions (or approximate "best")

The Problem (in words) I want to sort $N$ items where the value of item $i$ at position $p$ is given by the function $f_i(p)$. The "best" order for these items is the one that maximizes the ...
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1answer
129 views

Number of nodes at given depth in binary tree

Show that there is no comparison sort whose running time is linear for at least half of the $n!$ inputs of length $n$. What about a fraction of $1/n$ of the inputs of length $n$? What about a fraction ...
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2answers
113 views

Proving that the recurrence $T(n) = 2T\left(\frac{n}{2}\right) + 1$ with $T(2) = 1$ is asymptotically $O(n)$

I've already solved the recurrence exactly and found that $T(n) = n - 1$. Therefore, I know that $T(n) = O(n)$. However, I'm having trouble showing that $T(n) = O(n)$ without solving the recurrence ...
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39 views

What is the exponent of 0.00000072

And how do I solve this? I know this is a decimal and we have to convert it to an exponent. I want to know how I would solve this and the steps as well so I will be able to solve questions similar to ...
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43 views

Show that this language is undecidable

Given the language $K$ $=\{<M> $ where $M$ is a turing machine ( that is on the alphabet {0,1}) and $L(M)$ contains at least one word of form $0^k1^l$ with $k,l\geq 0\}$ I would like to know if ...
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1answer
76 views

How to show ambiguous context-free grammars in Chomsky normal form is Turing recognizable?

So this question has two questions and i have to use the answer from 1 to answer question 2. Assuming that my answer for 1 is good. I need help with 2. ( Correct me if wrong please.) Question 1 : Show ...
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1answer
47 views

any one can prove following inequality?

are for every $\alpha \in N $ , $ \frac{1}{\alpha-2} \geq \frac{1}{\alpha}+\frac{1}{\alpha-1}$?
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1answer
52 views

Height of AVL tree with balance condition of 2

The maximum height of an AVL tree with a balance condition of 1 is 1.44log(n). So the worst case height is O(logn). However, if the balance condition was hypothetically 2 (meaning that the allowed ...
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27 views

Question about graphs and Eulerian path

An almost complete graph of n vertices is obtained from the removal of two edges of the complete graph of n vertices. For which values of n are there almost complete graphs that admit Eulerian paths? ...
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1answer
101 views

How can I prove the correctness of this exponentiation algorithm using induction?

I have the following algorithm. How could I prove it using induction that for every $n\ge 0$, Exp(n)${}= 2 ^ n$? ...

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