Questions tagged [discrete-mathematics]

Questions about discrete mathematics, the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

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28 views

Lower bound on $c_n = 4c_{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} + n$

Define a sequence $c_1,c_2,\dots$ by the equations $$ c_1=0, \quad c_n = 4c_{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} + n \text{ for all } n > 1. $$ Prove that $\frac{(n+1)^2}{8} < c_n$ for all $n \geq 2$. Hint: $\...
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3answers
30 views

Prove by contrapositive

How do I prove this by contrapositive? By far, I came to (a-b)^2 <= 0
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0answers
15 views

Why can't I evaluate this L-Attributed SDD with a pre-order traversal?

My powerpoints for a compiler class says "an L-Attributed SDD can be evaluated with a pre-order (root, left, right) traversal", and to be L-Attributed the nodes need to have either ...
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2answers
58 views

Is discrete math enough for computer science ? Or there other Math topics that I should also learn With it?

I want to learn computer science, SO is discrete math enough for computer science ? Or there other Math topics that I should also learn With it ? I don’t have specific topic that I care more about ...
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1answer
32 views

Expressing a constraint of the form $\max(x_1,x_2) \ge q$ in a linear program

I am trying to solve an LP in which one of the constraints is mentioned below, $$\max(x_1,x_2) \ge q,$$ where $x_1 \ge 0$ and $x_2 \ge 0$. Is it possible to do in linear programming?
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2answers
63 views

What mathematical guarantees gives alpha-beta pruning?

In the alpha-beta pruning version of the minimax algorithm, when one evaluates a state p with $\alpha$ and $\beta$ cutoff and gets a ...
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3answers
89 views

Computing square vs computing square-root? Time complexity

I am working on something that requires checking a very large natural number $x$ to determine if it is the square root of an even larger natural number $y$. So I am wondering what are the fastest ...
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2answers
39 views

How can I show mathematically the time complexity of this function is O(N)?

int foo(N){ if(N <= 1){ return 0 }else{ return 1 + foo(N-1) } } I can tell that the time complexity of this program is O(N) but I am ...
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0answers
39 views

A necessary condition for a relation to be in 2NF but not in 3NF is that some non-prime attribute must be determined by a non-prime attribute

I will state the complete question now, since it did not fit in the title. Is the statement given below correct? A necessary condition for a relation to be in 2NF but not in 3NF is that some non-...
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2answers
37 views

Compute average case with best case

is it correct to compute the average case time complexity of an algorithm by taking the mean of the best and worst cases ? My findings : for binary search, $\frac{\log (n) +1}{2}\in \Theta \left(\log (...
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1answer
31 views

Given an undirected graph, find an orientation such that every vertex has out-degree at least 3

Given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, describe an algorithm that computes an orientation of $E$ such that each vertex has out-degree at least 3. I know how to check if a vertex $v$ has at least $k$ ...
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1answer
56 views

facts on tree and MST

We are given an Undirected, Weighted and Connected Graph $G$, (non-negative weights, all distinct) with one property that shortest path between any two vertexes on this graph is on MST. The following ...
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1answer
22 views

Find The “Best” Permutation of Inputs to Maximize Sum of Functions (or approximate “best”)

The Problem (in words) I want to sort $N$ items where the value of item $i$ at position $p$ is given by the function $f_i(p)$. The "best" order for these items is the one that maximizes the ...
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1answer
98 views

Number of nodes at given depth in binary tree

Show that there is no comparison sort whose running time is linear for at least half of the $n!$ inputs of length $n$. What about a fraction of $1/n$ of the inputs of length $n$? What about a fraction ...
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1answer
68 views

Proving that the recurrence $T(n) = 2T\left(\frac{n}{2}\right) + 1$ with $T(2) = 1$ is asymptotically $O(n)$

I've already solved the recurrence exactly and found that $T(n) = n - 1$. Therefore, I know that $T(n) = O(n)$. However, I'm having trouble showing that $T(n) = O(n)$ without solving the recurrence ...
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1answer
36 views

What is the exponent of 0.00000072

And how do I solve this? I know this is a decimal and we have to convert it to an exponent. I want to know how I would solve this and the steps as well so I will be able to solve questions similar to ...
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0answers
38 views

Show that this language is undecidable

Given the language $K$ $=\{<M> $ where $M$ is a turing machine ( that is on the alphabet {0,1}) and $L(M)$ contains at least one word of form $0^k1^l$ with $k,l\geq 0\}$ I would like to know if ...
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1answer
65 views

How to show ambiguous context-free grammars in Chomsky normal form is Turing recognizable?

So this question has two questions and i have to use the answer from 1 to answer question 2. Assuming that my answer for 1 is good. I need help with 2. ( Correct me if wrong please.) Question 1 : Show ...
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1answer
46 views

any one can prove following inequality?

are for every $\alpha \in N $ , $ \frac{1}{\alpha-2} \geq \frac{1}{\alpha}+\frac{1}{\alpha-1}$?
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1answer
40 views

Height of AVL tree with balance condition of 2

The maximum height of an AVL tree with a balance condition of 1 is 1.44log(n). So the worst case height is O(logn). However, if the balance condition was hypothetically 2 (meaning that the allowed ...
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0answers
25 views

Question about graphs and Eulerian path

An almost complete graph of n vertices is obtained from the removal of two edges of the complete graph of n vertices. For which values of n are there almost complete graphs that admit Eulerian paths? ...
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1answer
63 views

How can I prove the correctness of this exponentiation algorithm using induction?

I have the following algorithm. How could I prove it using induction that for every $n\ge 0$, Exp(n)${}= 2 ^ n$? ...
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2answers
131 views

Min path cover for a three-layer graph with all paths traversing all layers

Best to start with an example. I want to design fictional fruits. The fruits have three attributes: color, taste and smell. There are $c$ possible colors, $t$ possible tastes and $s$ possible smells. ...
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0answers
34 views

Line graphs of Powers of Cycles are powers of cycles

Are line graphs of powers of cycles again a power of cycle? I think yes, this is because the line graphs of cycles are cycles of the same order, and moreover, since powers of cycles consist of edge ...
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3answers
44 views

Which topics of mathematics should I need to learn to be a good app developer?

I'm 29 years old. I couldn't continue my studies after grade 10 due to some financial issues and I didn't have time to practice mathematics. It's been more than 11 years since I left studies. Now I ...
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0answers
28 views

Algorithm for specific load balancing/arbitration problem

I'm trying to design an algorithm for some specific arbitration requirements and I have a feeling I'm on well-trodden ground, but lack the maths background to properly analyse it. If someone could ...
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1answer
764 views

Arrange in increasing order of asymptotic complexity

I have the following functions that I need to rank in increasing order of Big-O complexity: $$(\log n)^3, 10\sqrt n, n\log n, n\sqrt n, n^4 + n^3, (2.1)^n \cdot n^2, 3^n, 2^n \cdot n^3, n! + n, n^n. $$...
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3answers
53 views

How to use DFA/NFA to prove the language {$0^n 𝑥1^𝑛$ | x ∈ Σ*, n ≥ 1} is regular?

I'm trying to prove the language L = {$0^n 𝑥1^𝑛$ | x ∈ Σ*, n ≥ 1} is regular, but don't know how to present it in a DFA/NFA. I'm thinking to have n+1 states in a NFA, with the start state as the ...
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14 views

How do you prove that this tree path calculation function works, from first principles mathematically?

I recently got an amazing answer to an SO question about how to calculate the path in a tree to an item, where you give it the corresponding array index, and the ...
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1answer
34 views

Mathematical expression for the quantity that we are maximising in the stock buying and selling problem

Problem Statement: Say you have an array prices for which the $i^{th}$ element is the price of a given stock on day $i$. Design an algorithm to find the maximum profit. You may complete as many ...
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1answer
56 views
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1answer
296 views

Asymptotic analysis of $T(n) = T(n/5) + T(4n/5) + \Theta(n)$

If I have a recurrence relationship like this: $$T(n) = T(n/5) + T(4n/5) + \Theta(n),$$ how would I analyze its rate of growth? I believe I can't use the master theorem. I tried to draw a tree but ...
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1answer
14 views

Populating a vector of numbers to expose an error in a function implementation

So lets say I'm writing an algorithm that takes a vector as input. I want to know that I'm writing this algorithm correctly however so I of course write tests to see if the output equals what I expect ...
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0answers
41 views

Proof using tableau algorithm

I have spent an hour finding the answer to this problem but can't do it, this is the problem: Determining whether the following semantic entailment holds or not by using the tableau algorithm ...
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1answer
26 views

Represent a DNF formula as a multivariate linear formula?

Lets say I have the following DNF: (x or y) and (z or i) / $(x\lor y)\land(z\lor i)$ How do I convert that into a polynomial form?
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0answers
57 views

Data structure to determine vertex membership after edge removal from a tree in sub-linear time?

Consider a tree $T = (V,E)$ and its induced disjoint trees $T_1 = (V_1, E_1), T_2=(V_2, E_2)$ by the removal of an edge $e \in E$. Is there a data structure that enables the immediate determination of ...
2
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0answers
23 views

How to linearly combine loss functions to preserve optimal substructure property?

I've been working on a binary tree optimization problem with two choices of loss function (let's call them A and B). I'm fairly certain that the problem of minimizing either A or B individually has ...
3
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1answer
49 views

An efficient way of calculating 𝜙(𝜙(p*q)) where p and q are prime

Let $p$ and $q$ be prime numbers and $\phi$ Euler's totient function. Is there an efficient way of computing $\phi(\phi(p\cdot q)) = \phi((p-1)(q-1))$, that is not simply based on factoring $p-1$ and $...
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1answer
45 views

For an NFA, can we always find a RAM?

For an NFA, can we always find a RAM, which recognises the same language?
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1answer
16 views

Maximum Chromatic number of Cayley Graphs with large degree

It is known that there does not exist a regular graph of order $n$ with clique size greater than $\lceil\frac{n}{2}\rceil$. My question pertains to Cayley graphs with large degree, say $\ge \frac{n}{2}...
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0answers
31 views

If factor isn't found in P-1 algorithm, should upper bound be increased linearly (i.e. +1)

I have seen some implementations of Pollard's P-1 algorithm where the upper bound is only increased by 1 if no factor is found. Such an implementation is described here. Is it sort of missing the ...
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2answers
52 views

Implementing piecewise linear functions

I need to implement piecewise linear functions (this is not homework, it is for my own personal project). However, I have been having difficulties to get it right. Below, I describe the ...
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1answer
53 views

Pumping Lemma,regular languages

Lets say that we have the language L = { $a^n$$b^m$$c^{m+n}$ $|$ $m$,$n$ $>=0$ } What is the way that i should follow to prove that the language is not regular? Assume that the language is ...
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2answers
136 views

Check for common element in two arrays using FFT

My task asks me to check whether there is a common element in two sets $\{x_1,x_2,...,x_n\}$, $\{y_1,y_2,...,y_n\}$ with $x_i,y_i\in\mathbb{N}$ using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). (I'm aware that ...
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1answer
38 views

Confusion about the Hiring Problem

I'm confused about where the probability from the hiring problem comes from. For background: We interview one person everyday who has a quality characteristic, x, from 0 to 1(distributed uniformly). ...
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1answer
74 views

Lexicographic permutation

Consider that you have a permutation of $n$ elements from $1$ to $n$ and you need to sort the elements lexicographical . for example sorted permutation for $n=11$ is $1,10,11,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9$ .Now ...
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1answer
31 views

How is expected value in entropy derived?

I was self learning about entropy and came across this equation. $$ H = - \sum p(x) \log p(x) $$ The equation for entropy in expected value, $$ H(x) = \operatorname*{\mathbb{E}}_{X \sim P}[I(x)] = -\...
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0answers
13 views

Trivial clarification with the analysis of the Dijkstra Algorithm as dealt with in Keneth Rosen's “Discrete Mathematics and its Application”

I was going through the text, "Discrete Mathematics and its Application" by Kenneth Rosen where I came across the analysis of the Dijkstra Algorithm and felt that the values at some places ...
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2answers
94 views

Is a 'discrete language' well-defined?

Are the following well-defined formal languages (in these cases: subsets of {0,1}*) ? An argument w is a member of L under the following rules... Example1: If more than half of w's digits are 1's --...
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0answers
17 views

Total weight of Huffman Code

We are given the following letters with the respective frequencies: \begin{equation*}\begin{matrix}a/2 & b/4 & c/7 & d/6 & e/4 & f/5 & g/8 & h/10 & i/3 & j/11\end{...

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