Questions tagged [distributed-systems]

Questions about the challenges of solving problems with multiple cooperating but separate agents.

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What is a counterexample for Lamport's distributed mutual exclusion algorithm with non-FIFO message queues?

Lamport's distributed mutual exclusion algorithm (also described here) solves mutual exclusion problem for $N$ processes with $3(N-1)$ messages per request ("take and release lock" cycle). It ...
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32 views

Why don't RDBMS use a quorum based solution to do failover

For RDBMS viz. MySql, PostgreSql a common solution for scalability and high availability is to run a primary instance as master that is a read-write instance and one or more read replicas. If the ...
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1answer
878 views

What is a genuine atomic multicast?

What is a genuine atomic multicast? What is the difference between a genuine and non-genuine atomic multicast?
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251 views

Does the Paxos algorithm use failure detectors?

Does the Paxos algorithm use failure detectors? If not, how can it solve consensus, given the impossibility result?
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1answer
125 views

Is There An Established Way To Send Code Over a Network?

Let's say I have two computers on a network. I want to write code in some language on machine A, send the code in an efficient way over a network, and run the code on machine B. It seems to me that ...
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1answer
119 views

In the FLP Impossibility paper, why did the authors claim that e is applicable to every E in proof of lemma 3?

The paper is available here: https://groups.csail.mit.edu/tds/papers/Lynch/jacm85.pdf The 1st paragraph of lemma 3's proof says In other words,if event e is applicable to config C,and E is any ...
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52 views

Under which conditions is it possible to scale a distributed log with checksums?

This question is related to Amazon's QLDB, but my question is about the generic architecture of such a software system. The question arises from the fact that Amazon advertises the service as "highly ...
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1answer
4k views

Difference between Lamport timestamps and Vector clocks

Lamport timestamps and vector clocks sound like almost the same thing. Both are used to determine the order of events in a distributed system. What are their key differences?
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1answer
50 views

Event-based architecture (in the context of Distributed Systems)

Our course lecture slides divide architectures of distributed systems into: object based architectures (e.g. typical distributed web application) resource-centered architectures (e.g. torrents and ...
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1answer
403 views

What's the difference between strong consistency and sequential consistency?

How to Make a Multiprocessor Computer That Correctly Executes Multiprocess Programs ... the result of any execution is the same as if the operations of all the processors were executed in some ...
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52 views

Distributed Computing: Persistent Data Structures in Functional Programming versus Wait-Free Data Structures

Persistent (aka immutable) data structures in functional programming sidestep issues of shared memory mutual exclusion, and thus also issues such as data races that arise and which may be difficult to ...
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1answer
155 views

Lamport logical clock: why event occurs in a process with smaller pid is treated earlier?

In lamport's paper1, he define global local timestamp, which is composed of process id and local lamport timestamp. This timestamp is used to order all the events in a distributed system. The rule ...
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1answer
600 views

Lamport logical clock: what does partial mean in the concept of `Partial ordering`?

In lamport's paper[1], he define two concept The partial ordering and The totally ordering. What does partial mean in ...
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40 views

Algorithms / heuristics for a distributed sorting problem

The setting: There's a cluster of $k$ computers (= nodes). For simplicity, assume their hardware is identical. The network topology can be complicated, but let's simplify and assume it's a clique ...
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1answer
56 views

Can a distributed algorithm be serial?

Can a distributed algorithm be serial? For example if I have 3 distinct agents in a network would an algorithm that looks like this be considered a distributed algorithm? ...
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1answer
33 views

Prominent applications not suited for distributed computing [closed]

In the www I can find a lot of application examples suited for and benefitting a lot from distributed computing. Question: Are there applications which are not suited for distributed computing? If ...
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1answer
1k views

Vector clock :why Singhal Kshemkalyani differential technique require FIFO for message passing?

Singhal–Kshemkalyani’s differential technique is based on the observation that between successive message sends to the same process, only a few entries of the vector clock at the sender process ...
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0answers
75 views

Why is a primary node needed in pBFT algorithm for consensus?

Why is primary needed in pBFT algo? Since many issues of viewchange etc. come up because primary may be faulty - is it possible to have a version of pBFT which doesn't have nodes assigned as primary? ...
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1answer
122 views

What are the recents topics of research that combine both systems research and theoretical computer science?

I am an undergraduate majoring in Computer Science and Mathematics. For my undergraduate research, I would like to work on something that lies in the overlap between systems research and theoretical ...
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102 views

How is Eventual Consistency (EC) better than Strong Consistency (SC) when N = 3, R=W=2 when SC gives better consistency gurantee in same config?

In dynamo paper, it says that in production most of the users set N = 3, R = 2 and W = 2. ...
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0answers
176 views

Byzantine generals (n=3, m=1)

Leslie Lamport describes a algorithm to come to consensus for the case for n>3*m, there m is the number of traitors in ...
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1answer
122 views

Strong Uniform Total Order vs Weak Uniform Total Order

The definition for SUTO and WUTO is the following: Suto If some process TODelivers some message m before message mʹ, then a process TODelivers mʹonly after it has TODelivered m. And for WUTO ...
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1answer
543 views

What are the purposes of Reply messages in Lamport Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion?

After reading Lamport Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion, I can not understand the purposes of reply messages. I think they are not necessary because the assumption of the algorithms is that all messages ...
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1answer
212 views

Impossibility of Distributed Consensus with One Faulty Process

I'm reading Fischer et al.'s Impossibility of Distributed Consensus with One Faulty Process, and I don't quite follow 2 points: The first is in the proof of Lemma 3, pg. 378: Otherwise, $e$ was ...
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1answer
29 views

Bloom Filter which does not fit in RAM [closed]

Is it possible to efficiently create a bloom filter with 10^12 buckets on a single machine with 32GB of RAM and a hard drive. We can assume that the keys are already on the disk and are small in size?
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37 views

BFT algorithm perfo

Understand that BFT algorithms are always prepared for the worst possible circumstances and pays a price for this in terms of speed. Can one reasonably make the statement / assessment that non BFT ...
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604 views

How to compare distributed systems and big data

Are there scientific papers that compare distributed systems and big data processing systems? Big data processing systems can be batch processing systems or streaming big data processing systems. A ...
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0answers
38 views

Tendermint Consensus - Resilient up to 1/3 of Byzantine participants

Tendermint Consensus is resilient for up to 1/3 of Byzantine participants. Question: What actually happens after when the network hits the threshold of byzantine actors? Forking happens? Does ...
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1answer
246 views

Async Distributed Algorithm Time Complexity

In theory of distributed systems, I understand message complexity and time complexity are common performance measures, with the first being the number of messages sent in the overall execution of the ...
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704 views

Even distribution algorithm

Right now I am working on a distributed system that sends messages from single source to many nodes. It is necessary that certain messages are sent to the same node to ensure order of processing. ...
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57 views

Number of replicas needed for fault tolerance in state machine replication

I am trying to get my head around "State Machine Replication". I understand that it is a way to ensure resilience against failures. I have read that in order to provide fault tolerance against normal ...
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117 views

Are Synchronous Message Order and Total Message Order separate concepts?

I am currently studying this book on distributed systems. In the chapter on message ordering the authors appear to use the term total message ordering and synchronous message ordering interchangeably. ...
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112 views

a problem with Suzuki-Kasami mutex algorithm

I have some sort of a misunderstanding regarding the Suzuki-Kasami distributed mutex algorithm. I am writing my question here because I failed on gaining access to the original paper. I will call ...
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1answer
113 views

Chord protocol - How should I go about mapping nodes to placeholders on the ring?

In the real world, how is a node mapped to the position on the ring, Each nodes's IP address is hashed using SHA-1 hashing algorithm which will produce this hash - 73.128.154.69 hashed into ...
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0answers
139 views

bakery algorithm, switching up the condition

I'm currently studying the Bakery Algorithm. I understand it for what it is but now I want to switch it up a bit. If we changed the < in the 2nd ...
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1answer
43 views

Soft question: program result verification

Let's say there's a cloud computing service that allows people to run arbitrary programs and get the results. The idea being that your machine is too slow, and you don't want to overwhelm it. If your ...
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2answers
141 views

Are consensus (and atomic broadcast) protocols limited by single node's resources?

The main question is the following: When designing a system supporting atomic broadcast, can it be proved theoretically that the performance & scalability dimensions (i.e. latency, throughput, ...
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0answers
10 views

Where can I find practice for given atom instructions, implement ME

I'm trying to practice for my upcoming distributed systems test. My teacher said that their will be a problem where he'll give us atomic instructions and we're going to have to implement Mutual ...
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1answer
50 views

Enforcing application layer consensus on top of a distributed consensus protocol

If I understand correctly, the term "consensus" in distributed consensus algorithms means that all the participants ("peers") achieve a common understanding of some data value. Different algorithms ...
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1answer
264 views

What us difference between distributed computing and workgroup computing?

According to the definition, distributed computing means to distributed a problem among different users while workgroup computing means to work on a problem by different users. So what's the ...
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0answers
203 views

Distributing Neural Network Training World-Wide Using Blockchain?

I just finished reading a white-paper from a recent AI startup. The company, Deep Brain Chain, wants to distribute neural network training over computers worldwide, using blockchain technology. Here ...
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1answer
1k views

How are lamport timestamps useful in practice?

I am reading Lamport's paper titled Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system I understand what's in there more or less, but I am confused whether Lamport timestamps on their ...
3
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1answer
86 views

FLP Impossiblity Result assumption of $C_1 = e'(C_0)$

FLP86's famous proof regarding impossibility of async distributed processes with a single fault assumes in the proof of the third lemma the existence of an event $e'$ such that the neighbor ...
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1answer
2k views

Why are forks in the Blockchain eventually resolved?

I'm reading Wattenhofer's The Science of the Blockchain. On page 87, he states the following thoerem: Theorem 7.22. Forks are eventually resolved and all nodes eventually agree on which is the ...
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1answer
87 views

Question about IO automaton

I'm currently reading Nancy Lynch book about distributed systems, chapter about IO automaton. And I have following questions related to book exercise 8.13(c). We are given some automaton A with sig(A)...
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1answer
252 views

Is it possible to write a wait free leader election algorithm?

I want to understand if there exists an algorithm which is wait free and operates on non-shared memory, asynchronously. Finally I want to know how to derive the consensus number of this algorithm. ...
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1answer
89 views

Sequential History in Herlihy and Wing's Linearizability paper

I've been reading Herlihy and Wing's paper Linearizability: A Correctness Condition for Concurrent Objects (ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 12(3):463–492, 1990; PDF) and ...
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1answer
75 views

affinity based static load balancing

I am trying to find a good model the following problem: Given a collection of work packets x, y, z, ..., and a collection of worker nodes ...
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1answer
155 views

Source code for Network File System [closed]

I am doing a small project which explains how operations (file open, file write etc.) are done in client side and server side in network File system. Can anyone help me out providing its source code ...
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2answers
402 views

Can we have a strictly monotonically increasing/decreasing sequence generated by a distributed system?

Just what the title says. Can we have a strictly monotonically increasing/decreasing sequence generated by a distributed system (without a single point of failure)? My current thoughts are that this ...

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