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Questions tagged [formal-languages]

Questions related to formal languages, grammars, and automata theory

111
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4answers
147k views

How to convert finite automata to regular expressions?

Converting regular expressions into (minimal) NFA that accept the same language is easy with standard algorithms, e.g. Thompson's algorithm. The other direction seems to be more tedious, though, and ...
87
votes
5answers
58k views

How to prove that a language is not context-free?

We learned about the class of context-free languages $\mathrm{CFL}$. It is characterised by both context-free grammars and pushdown automata so it is easy to show that a given language is context-free....
73
votes
8answers
98k views

How to prove that a language is not regular?

We learned about the class of regular languages $\mathrm{REG}$. It is characterised by any one concept among regular expressions, finite automata and left-linear grammars, so it is easy to show that a ...
60
votes
1answer
10k views

Language theoretic comparison of LL and LR grammars

People often say that LR(k) parsers are more powerful than LL(k) parsers. These statements are vague most of the time; in particular, should we compare the classes for a fixed $k$ or the union over ...
47
votes
8answers
65k views

How to prove a language is regular?

There are many methods to prove that a language is not regular, but what do I need to do to prove that some language is regular? For instance, if I am given that $L$ is regular, how can I prove that ...
43
votes
2answers
1k views

Determining capabilities of a min-heap (or other exotic) state machines

See the end of this post for some clarification on the definition(s) of min-heap automata. One can imagine using a variety of data structures for storing information for use by state machines. For ...
43
votes
1answer
10k views

Show that { xy ∣ |x| = |y|, x ≠ y } is context-free

I remember coming across the following question about a language that supposedly is context-free, but I was unable to find a proof of the fact. Have I perhaps misremembered the question? Anyway, here'...
38
votes
0answers
1k views

Is there a regular tree language in which the average height of a tree of size $n$ is neither $\Theta(n)$ nor $\Theta(\sqrt{n})$?

We define a regular tree language as in the book TATA: It is the set of trees accepted by a non-deterministic finite tree automaton (Chapter 1) or, equivalently, the set of trees generated by a ...
37
votes
1answer
6k views

What is the difference between an algorithm, a language and a problem?

It seems that on this site, people will often correct others for confusing "algorithms" and "problems." What are the difference between these? How do I know when I should be considering algorithms and ...
35
votes
2answers
5k views

Are there inherently ambiguous and deterministic context-free languages?

Let us call a context-free language deterministic if and only if it can be accepted by a deterministic push-down automaton, and nondeterministic otherwise. Let us call a context-free language ...
32
votes
9answers
3k views

What is the significance of context-sensitive (Type 1) languages?

Seeing that in the Chomsky Hierarchy Type 3 languages can be recognised by a state machine with no external memory (i.e., a finite automaton), Type 2 by a state machine with a single stack (i.e. a ...
31
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is a regular language called 'regular'?

I have just completed the first chapter of the Introduction to the Theory of Computation by Michael Sipser which explains the basics of finite automata. He defines a regular language as anything ...
27
votes
1answer
860 views

Asymptotics of the number of words in a regular language of given length

For a regular language $L$, let $c_n(L)$ be the number of words in $L$ of length $n$. Using Jordan canonical form (applied to the unannotated transition matrix of some DFA for $L$), one can show that ...
25
votes
2answers
22k views

How to prove that a language is context-free?

There are many techniques to prove that a language is not context-free, but how do I prove that a language is context-free? What techniques are there to prove this? Obviously, one way is to exhibit ...
24
votes
1answer
580 views

“Dense” regular expressions generate $\Sigma^*$?

Here's a conjecture for regular expressions: For regular expression $R$, let the length $|R|$ be the number of symbols in it, ignoring parentheses and operators. E.g. $|0 \cup 1| = |(0 \cup 1)^*| ...
23
votes
6answers
5k views

What is the Relationship Between Programming Languages, Regular Expressions and Formal Languages

I've looked around the net for an answer to this question and it seems as if everybody implicitly knows the answer except me. Presumably this is because the only people who care are those who have had ...
23
votes
3answers
2k views

What are the conditions for a NFA for its equivalent DFA to be maximal in size?

We know that DFAs are equivalent to NFAs in expressiveness power; there is also a known algorithm for converting NFAs to DFAs (unfortunately I do now know the inventor of that algorithm), which in ...
22
votes
6answers
29k views

Recursive and recursively enumerable language definition for a layman

I've come across many definitions of recursive and recursively enumerable languages. But I couldn't quite understand what they are . Can some one please tell me what they are in simple words?
22
votes
4answers
1k views

Do undecidable languages exist in constructivist logic?

Constructivist logic is a system which removes the Law of the Excluded Middle, as well as Double Negation, as axioms. It's described on Wikipedia here and here. In particular, the system doesn't ...
22
votes
1answer
5k views

How to show that L = L(G)?

Specifying formal languages by giving formal grammars is a frequent task: we need grammars not only to describe languages, but also to parse them, or even do proper science. In all cases, it is ...
22
votes
1answer
261 views

Is there any nongeneral CFG parsing algorithm that recognises EPAL?

EPAL, the language of even palindromes, is defined as the language generated by the following unambiguous context-free grammar: $S \rightarrow a a$ $S \rightarrow b b$ $S \rightarrow a S ...
22
votes
3answers
1k views

Is this strange language context free?

Is the following language context free: $L = \{ uxvy \mid u,v,x,y \in \{ 0,1 \}^+, |u| = |v|, u \neq v, |x| = |y|, x \neq y\} $ ? I think that it's not context free but I'm having a hard time proving ...
21
votes
2answers
904 views

Is there a “natural” undecidable language?

Is there any "natural" language which is undecidable? by "natural" I mean a language defined directly by properties of strings, and not via machines and their equivalent. In other words, if the ...
21
votes
4answers
1k views

Are there other ways to describe formal languages other than grammars?

I'm looking for mathematical theories that deal with describing formal languages (set of strings) in general and not just grammar hierarchies.
20
votes
2answers
1k views

Which languages do Perl-compatible regular expressions recognize?

As the title says, I spent a couple of hours last weekend trying to wrap up my mind about the class of languages matched by Perl-compatible regular expressions, excluding any matching operator that ...
19
votes
3answers
827 views

Parsing arbitrary context-free grammars, mostly short snippets

I want to parse user-defined domain specific languages. These languages are typically close to mathematical notations (I am not parsing a natural language). Users define their DSL in a BNF notation, ...
19
votes
2answers
959 views

Are context-free languages in $a^*b^*$ closed under complement?

The context-free languages are not closed under complement, we know that. As far as I understand, context-free languages that are a subset of $a^*b^*$ for some letters $a,b$ are closed under ...
19
votes
1answer
272 views

Machines for context-free languages which gain no extra power from nondeterminism

When considering machine models of computation, the Chomsky hierarchy is normally characterised by (in order), finite automata, push-down automata, linear bound automata and Turing Machines. For the ...
18
votes
3answers
7k views

Pumping lemma for simple finite regular languages

Wikipedia has the following definition of the pumping lemma for regular langauges... Let $L$ be a regular language. Then there exists an integer $p$ ≥ 1 depending only on $L$ such that every ...
18
votes
3answers
328 views

Is this language defined using twin primes regular?

Let $\qquad L = \{a^n \mid \exists_{p \geq n}\ p\,,\ p+2 \text{ are prime}\}.$ Is $L$ regular? This question looked suspicious at the first glance and I've realized that it is connected with the ...
18
votes
4answers
7k views

Using Pumping Lemma to prove language $L = \{(01)^m 2^m \mid m \ge0\}$ is not regular

I'm trying to use pumping lemma to prove that $L = \{(01)^m 2^m \mid m \ge0\}$ is not regular. This is what I have so far: Assume $L$ is regular and let $p$ be the pumping length, so $w = (01)^p 2^p$....
18
votes
1answer
1k views

Is language equality for linear context-free grammars decidable?

Let's consider two context-free grammars $G_1$ and $G_2$ and ask the following question: Is $L(G_1) = L(G_2)$, that is, are the two grammars equivalent? In general, this problem is undecidable. ...
17
votes
4answers
49k views

How to show that a “reversed” regular language is regular

I'm stuck on the following question: "Regular languages are precisely those accepted by finite automata. Given this fact, show that if the language $L$ is accepted by some finite automaton, then $L^{...
17
votes
2answers
2k views

Is a Turing machine without the ability to write on blank cells less powerful than standard Turing?

Is a Turing machine without the ability to write on blank cells less powerful than standard Turing? I think the answer is yes but i'm unable to find a computation that standard Turing machine can do ...
17
votes
1answer
4k views

Languages that satisfy the pumping lemma but aren't regular?

Given a regular language $L$, then it is easy to prove that there is a constant $N$ such that is $\sigma \in L$, with $\lvert \sigma \rvert \ge N$ there exist strings $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$ ...
17
votes
1answer
7k views

Construct a PDA for the complement of $a^nb^nc^n$

I am wondering if this is even possible, since $\{a^n b^n c^n \mid n \geq 0\} \not\in \mathrm{CFL}$. Therefore a PDA that can distinguish a word $w\in\{a^n b^n c^n \mid n \geq 0\}$ from the rest of $...
17
votes
1answer
261 views

Regular expressions with backreferences over unary alphabet

Setting: regular expressions with backreferences unary language (1-symbol alphabet) Is the following problem decidable in this setting: Given a regular expression with backreferences, does it ...
16
votes
3answers
6k views

Is there any uncountable Turing decidable language?

There are many(and I mean many) countable languages which are Turing-decidable. Can any uncountable language be Turing decidable?
16
votes
3answers
747 views

Number of words in the regular language $(00)^*$

According to Wikipedia, for any regular language $L$ there exist constants $\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_k$ and polynomials $p_1(x),\ldots,p_k(x)$ such that for every $n$ the number $s_L(n)$ of words of ...
16
votes
2answers
316 views

When is the concatenation of two regular languages unambiguous?

Given languages $A$ and $B$, let's say that their concatenation $AB$ is unambiguous if for all words $w \in AB$, there is exactly one decomposition $w = ab$ with $a \in A$ and $b \in B$, and ambiguous ...
16
votes
2answers
324 views

Languages accepted by modified versions of finite automata

A deterministic finite automaton (DFA) is a state machine model capable of accepting all and only regular languages. DFAs can be (and usually are) defined in such a way that each state must provide ...
16
votes
2answers
2k views

Decidablity of Languages of Grammars and Automata

Note this is a question related to study in a CS course at a university, it is NOT homework and can be found here under Fall 2011 exam2. Here are the two questions I'm looking at from a past exam. ...
16
votes
1answer
472 views

Proving closure under reversal of languages accepted by min-heap automata

This is a follow-up question of this one. In a previous question about exotic state machines, Alex ten Brink and Raphael addressed the computational capabilities of a peculiar kind of state machine: ...
16
votes
2answers
929 views

Algorithm to test whether a language is context-free

Is there an algorithm/systematic procedure to test whether a language is context-free? In other words, given a language specified in algebraic form (think of something like $L=\{a^n b^n a^n : n \in \...
15
votes
3answers
2k views

Finding examples of languages that are “anti-palindromic”

Let $\Sigma = \{ 0, 1 \}$. A language $L \subseteq \Sigma^* $ is said to have the "anti-palindrome" property if for every string $w$ that is a palindrome, $w\notin L$. In addition, for every string $u$...
15
votes
2answers
561 views

What is the origin of λ for empty string?

I usually use the symbol $\varepsilon$ for empty string (empty word or null string). But I know some people use $\lambda$ instead of $\varepsilon$. I think $\varepsilon$ is derived from the word "...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Number of words of a given length in a regular language

Is there an algebraic characterization of the number of words of a given length in a regular language? Wikipedia states a result somewhat imprecisely: For any regular language $L$ there exist ...
15
votes
2answers
3k views

Are regular expressions $LR(k)$?

If I have a Type 3 Grammar, it can be represented on a pushdown automaton (without doing any operation on the stack) so I can represent regular expressions by using context free languages. But can I ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

Kleene star operation on the empty language

In my text book it is mentioned that: $\emptyset^*=\{\epsilon\}$ where $\emptyset$ is an empty language. However, we know that $L \cdot \emptyset = \emptyset$, where $L$ is any Language. I am not ...
15
votes
1answer
501 views

The number of different regular languages

Given an alphabet $\Sigma = \{ a,b \}$, how many different regular languages are there that can be accepted by an $n$-state non-deterministic finite automaton? As an example, let us consider $n=3$. ...