# Questions tagged [formal-languages]

Questions related to formal languages, grammars, and automata theory

2,509 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
59 views

### A non-CFL over {a,b,c} with a non-CFL complement?

I understand uncountably many such languages exist, and the rational for it is clear to me. I just can't think of one trivial, easy to prove example. For instance, the complement of a^nb^nc^n is CF, ...
65 views

### Which of the following languages can be represented by regular expressions?

The set of all words contained in $\{0,1\}^*$ that have an even number of 0’s and an odd number of 1’s. I came to discover that it is possible but not sure how. Can anyone express it in a regular ...
41 views

### How to carry out expansion in regular expression problems like ((0*10)*)?

I have been given some problems like: Determine if each of the following strings belongs to the corresponding regular language. i. ‘10100010’ and L((0*10)*). iv. ‘011100101’ and L(01*10*(11*0)*) I ...
1k views

### Is the language regular or not?

The language given is $L = \{w_1xw_2\mid w_1,w_2\in \{a,b\}^* \text{ and } x \in \{a,b\}\}$. Is this language regular or not? Since there is no pattern, so it should be non-regular? Kindly help!
59 views

### Declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamative sentences in computer languages

The following English sentences have different forms (syntax): Declarative: You are my friend. Interrogative: Are you my friend? Imperative: Be my friend! Exclamative: What a good friend you are! ...
49 views

### For $L_S=\{\langle M\rangle : L(M)\in S \}$ what know about $S$ if

For $L_S=\{\langle M\rangle : L(M)\in S \}$ what know about $S$ in case of: $L_S\in RE$ $L_S\in R$
52 views

### What is the formal definition of precedence and associativity in programming language?

The concept of precedence and associativity seems straightforward. The operator precedence is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to ...
65 views

### prove/disprove regularity of languages

Let $L_1 \in REG$ and $L_2 \notin REG$ prove or disprove: $\forall L_1 ,L_2 \text{ }$ $\text{ }L_1^C \cup L_2\in REG \lor L_2\setminus L_1\in REG$ I think that it may be disproved, but I found it ...
59 views

### Is this grammar well-defined? How do I prove the language generated by it is regular?

I have the following problem statement: Is G well-defined here? I am unsure of this since there's no production rule for $X, Y, Z$, and this confuses me a bit. And secondly, how do I prove $L$ is ...
47 views

38 views

### Is it true that PRIMES are in SPARSE?

I'm wondering if PRIMES, the language of all prime numbers represented in binary, which is $\{10, 11, 101, 111, 1011, 1101, ...\}$, belongs to the SPARSE class, a set of all sparse languages, that is, ...
58 views

### Context-free grammar for $a^{2n} b^{2n}$

I have just started learning formal languages and here is a question I am facing a little hurdle: Construct a context-free grammar for $\{ a^{2n}b^{2n} \mid n \ge 0 \}$. This was what I got at first....
32 views

I've recently seen a proof that the set of Turing machines $L = \{encode(M) |L(M) \text{is closed under reversal}\}$ is not decidable. The proof used following idea: Reduce from the $A_{TM}$ problem ...
29 views

### Decidability of $\{⟨G⟩ \mid \text{$G$is CFG and$L(G) ⊈ \Sigma^+$}\}$

I want to prove that the following language is decidable: $$\mathit{SEQ}_{\mathit{CFG}} = \{⟨G⟩ \mid \text{G is CFG and L(G) ⊈ L}\}, \text{ where } L = \Sigma^* - \{\epsilon\}$$ So, I think about ...
58 views

### Closure of context-sensitive languages under inverse language substitution

We define language substitution for a Context-Sensitive Language (CSL) $S$ over an alphabet $\Sigma$ is a map from $\Sigma$ into CSL's, for example: $f(abc) = L_1(a) L_2(b) L_3(c)$ such that (I guess) ...
31 views

### Unambiguous formal grammars for a specific class of languages

Suppose that $w \in \{0; 1\}^*$ is a binary word. Let's denote the number of $0$-s in $w$ as $\#_0(w)$ and the number of $1$-s in $w$ as $\#_1(w)$. Now suppose that $q \in \mathbb{Q}$ is a positive ...
27 views

### How to define the languages of the implicit set system problems?

There are implicit versions of some set system problems or matroid problems. A set system is a pair $(U, \mathcal{F})$, where $U$ is a universe of size $n$ and $\mathcal{F}$ is a collection of susbets ...
49 views

### Describe regular expression

I am learning about regular expression, and trying to describe a regular expression for the language L $\qquad L = \{a^i b^j c^k \mid i+j = k\}$ What is the right approach and how to describe a ...
38 views

22 views

### Using pumping lemma to prove that $L = \{ a^ib^j \mid \lvert i - j \rvert \le 2 \}$ is irregular

Given the following language: $L = \{ a^ib^j \mid \lvert i - j \rvert \le 2 \}$ I am trying to prove that it is not regular. On the one hand my intuition tells me that the language is non-regular as ...
25 views

### Proving Irregularity of $L = \{ a^mb^nb^n \mid nm \ge 3 \}$

I'm trying to prove the irregularity of the following language: $$L = \{ a^mb^nb^n \mid nm \ge 3 \}$$ I tried to demonstrate that it doesn't verifies the Pumping Lemma but for all words I tried it ...
78 views

### What does a non-deterministic guess “look like”?

I have been trying to understand the solution to the following problem: "Show that if $L_2$ and $L_3$ are Turing recognisable, then so is $L_2L_3 = \{w_1w_2 : w_1 \in L_2,w_2\in L_3\}$: which ...
35 views

### Regular expression for binary representation of even numbers?

I need help writing the regular expression over the alphabet (0,1) represent the even numbers in base ten. So basically the regular expression would show represent an even number in binary. (also if ...
32 views

### Closure of context-free languages under left-half [duplicate]

The regular languages are known to be closed under the operation "left half":  \operatorname{left}(L) = \{ x \in \Sigma^* : xy \in L \text{ for some } y \in \Sigma^* \text{ s.t. } |x|=|y| \...
### Existence of a CFL $L$ such that $\sqrt{L}$ is not CFL
Does there exist a CFL L such that the language defined as $L' = \sqrt{L} = \{w | ww \in L\}$ is not CFL? I feel that there is no such $L$ but obviously, I am unable to prove it. I am sorry but I have ...