Questions tagged [formal-methods]

a particular kind of mathematically-based technique for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.

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How to prove that $\lfloor{\sqrt{n}\rfloor} = \Theta(\sqrt{n})$? [duplicate]

It is quite direct to prove that $\lfloor{\sqrt{n}\rfloor} = O(\sqrt{n})$. But how can I prove that $\lfloor{\sqrt{n}\rfloor} = \Omega(\sqrt{n})$?
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How to prevent the change of other objects in Z specification?

I have Z specification of Banking system, whose fragments are: and I think that the specification is OK, but my professor says that this specifiction is completely wrong, because AddAccount ...
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Effective method for simulating program's cycle

I'm looking for an effective method to simulate a program. Why I am needing this is because sometimes I can only have the program's description, code, and all I have left is pen and paper when I want ...
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438 views

Logical conjunction of two binary decision diagrams

Compute a BDD for $B_{1} \wedge B_{2}$ by using an algorithm that applies dynamic programming. Document the execution of the algorithm by indicating pairs of BDDs $(q_{1},q_{2})$ and the BDD $q_{1} \...
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What does least fix point and greatest fix point mean in Safety games

In safety games there are these mathematical notation about greatest fix points and least fix points but I don't get it. How would we describe them plain English without mathematical symbols.
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Maximum value a variable can hold without documentation [closed]

Suppose we work with some particular programming language (like C++) on some particular computer. Furthermore, we want to know which values are minimum and maximum for some particular numeric data ...
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What's the meaning of this service specification

What's the meaning of the example statement here? "A service specification S describes an interface: it specifies the behavior of certain program elements (functions or subprograms) through ...
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How to apply Operational Semantics to this function

Say I have a function like this: ...
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1answer
40 views

Effective Procedures and P vs NP Problem

If, suppose, P doesn't equal NP. Implication of this statement is that there is no effective procedure to solve a hard problem; however there exists an acceptable solution S. I have following two ...
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1answer
77 views

How to collect all states of a behavior in TLA+?

Description of the problem: I am modeling checking a distributed protocol against a global property with TLA+ developed by Leslie Lamport. The global property is defined on all states of a behavior (...
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1answer
55 views

How to solve for the precondition give a postcondtion that must satisfy two conditions

I tried solving past exam question but there is this one that I haven't been able to solve. The question states that a suitable precondition should be found for the statement. $$ a= i +2; i++\{(a = ...
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1answer
117 views

Topics from theoretical computer science suitable for a bachelor (undergrate) thesis? [closed]

Is the field of theoretical computer science so complex, that it is just "too much" for a bachelor thesis? Unfortunately I haven't found any old thesises because the relevant chair of the university ...
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84 views

Set containment of MinimumBadPrefix and BadPrefix of a Safety Property

This question is related to formal model checking theory, but I cannot find a tag for it. Let $P_{safe}$ be a safety property. $BadPref(P_{safe})$ is the set of bad prefixes for $P_{safe}$ A Safety ...
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1answer
32 views

Compute Lazily - Model checking

What is meant by lazily computing online? For example, in context of synthesis, that uses model checking. http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~france/CS614/Readings/Readings2011/Model-checking-Survey-a21-...
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Textbook for Hoare logic

I am looking to understand what Hoare logic is, and how it is used to prove program-correctness. I am interested in an applied text, which shows how to actually state formal specifications of programs,...
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How to generate tests using Model-Based Testing paradigm (for a newcomer)

So I just learned of Model-Based Testing. It sounds like this is a practical approach to some level of formal verification of production software applications. As I understand it, you have a ...
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Does formal specification of UX needs special language apart from the general specification languages?

I am fan of Alloy and CASL specification languages and my question is - what is the common practice regarding the formal methods in UX? Does UX require distinct specification languages? Generally one ...
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How to solve Hoare's problem when precondition contains meta symbols?

This is the proram for which I have to prove correctness using Hoare's Axioms: {X = |x|} if(x<=0) x:=-x; else skip; {X=x} This is my solution so ...
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Confusion regarding algebraic specification of the queue

I was given the following question in the test where I had to write the algebraic specification and its axioms based on below-defined operations: ...
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State-machine semantics of instruction set architectures

An instruction set architecture is an abstraction, a common interface layer between the software and the micro-architecture. The existence of this clearly delineated interface is becoming increasingly ...
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Formal language representation of program

I have numerous records, composed of words. Each word gets translated into vectors, with a variable number of channels, provided that that word exists in a specific lookup dictionary. For n number of ...
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What is the name for the theory that guarantees proof for negative and not for all possible positives

I have heard of some people mentioning the general rule that says that you can only ever guarantee that a program will not capture the negative cases but you can never guarantee that it captures all ...
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From verification to program code

Suppose we have modeled the operational behavior as FSM, and properties as LTL or CTL, and we have used a model checking tool to confirm the fsm satisfies the LTL/CTl properties. What is the next ...
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Help understaning LTL formulae [closed]

I am studying Software Engineering and I have different LTL formulas for which I have to determine if they are valid, unsatisfiable or neither. Here are the formulas : (<>[]p ∧ <>[]q) → <>[]...

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