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Questions tagged [hash]

Mathematical function that maps arbitrarily-sized data to fixed-size integers, often used as keys in hash tables or to help ensure data integrity

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Using XOR operation, a MOD operation compute a function f(n)

I had a difficult assignment in my Data Structures and Algorithms class. We need to implement a program that computes a function f(n) based on the following known values of n and f(n): n : 9689 ...
Shiyao Ju's user avatar
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1 answer
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Hash function for use with hash table, given power distributed integers

Suppose I have integers that follows a power distribution: $P(n) \propto 1/(n + 1)^\alpha, n \geq 0$ What hash function is a good choice to avoid collisions. The usecase is keys in an ...
user877329's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can you unwind a cryptographic hash function's last round?

Given a cryptographic hash, $ \text{hash}(A || B || C) $, and the last block added to the hash, $ C $, can you determine $ \text{hash}(A || B) $? In other words, can you roll back the last round of a ...
Zaz's user avatar
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2 answers
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A good way to hash two numbers with known properties together

I have two 64-bit numbers a and b which have a few properties: only 49 out of the 64 bits are used (15 bits are always 0), and ...
Rak Laptudirm's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
41 views

Find a pair $a,b$ with a range condition in Hash table

Given an array with the size of $n$ of integer numbers. Our goal will be to analyze the expected running time of an algorithm that uses a hash table to find (if exists) a pair $(a,b)$ subject to $2<...
ErroR's user avatar
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1 vote
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Reversible streaming hash function

Do any streaming hash functions exist that provide the same result if the input is reversed? That is to say, is there some hash function, $h$, such that: $$ h(h(h(h(0, x_1), x_2), ...), x_n) = h(h(h(h(...
Zaz's user avatar
  • 145
2 votes
1 answer
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Hash function that returns the same result when the input is reversed

Do any hash functions exist that provide the same result if the input is reversed? If this is impossible, why is it impossible? I am interested in sending packets of constant size around a circuit in ...
Zaz's user avatar
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10 votes
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Are there associative cryptographic / collision resistant hashes?

Git uses SHA hashing as a content address key. This relies on their being a vanishingly small probability that two different pieces of content will ever hash to the same key. For content ...
Benjohn's user avatar
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1 answer
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Determine if all the continuous subsequences of an array contain at least one unique element in O(n lgn)

Given an array of length n, how to determine if all the continuous subsequence of this array contains at least one unique element. Any subarray array[start, end] ...
patayala's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
60 views

How to create a 'hashing' function that maps up to 1 to N numbers uniquely to numbers 1 to N

I would like to use or create a hashing algorithm that takes K inputs from 1 to N and maps them uniquely to different numbers on 1 to N. K can be 1 to N. Ideally I would like the hashing alg to be ...
Drew's user avatar
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1 answer
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What would happen SHA-256 collision were to be found?

As far as I and this wikipedia page know, there are no collisions (2 inputs with the same output) found in SHA-256 (yet). what would happen if a collision were to be found, 1. would it be easier to ...
Shy Cohen's user avatar
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Suppose some hash family H satisfies $$Pr_{h_{\in_{R}} H}[h(x_1) = h(x_2)] = \frac{1}{|Y|}$$ Does it mean H is 2 universal?

Suppose some hash family H satisfies $$Pr_{h_{\in_{R}} H}[h(x_1) = h(x_2)] = \frac{1}{|Y|}$$ Does it mean H is 2 universal? The converse is true, but I'm not sure about this.
happy's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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What is the definition of security of universal hashing

As a cryptographic primitive, universal hashing should have somewhat a criterion on its security. How is its (computational) security defined? Or, in other words, what "breaks" a universal ...
Kagura Hitoha's user avatar
13 votes
9 answers
7k views

Do passwords need a max length?

I understand that password storage generally uses hashing for security due to it being irreversible and that the stored hash is just compared to the hash of the password inputed by a user attempting ...
Ethan's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
55 views

On the equivalence between two definitions of universal hashing

Let $H=\{h|h:X\to Y\}$, $|X|=n$, $|Y|=m$. $H$ is a universal hash family if Def 1. For any $x_1,\ x_2\in X$, $x_1\neq x_2$, $\left|\left\{h\in H\middle| h(x_1)=h(x_2)\right\}\right|\leq |H|/m$. (or ...
Kagura Hitoha's user avatar
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0 answers
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If the data that I input for locality sensitive hashing is sensitive, should its resulting hash also be considered sensitive?

Is it correct to assume that if the input that I hash is sensitive, that I should also consider the locality-sensitive hash generated for that input to be sensitive? I presume that, if an attacker has ...
Pierre Duluth's user avatar
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1 answer
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Reversible computing as a path to a useful PRNG or hash function?

There's a question I've long had about reversible computing: do non-trivial algorithms usually end up generating strongly pseudorandom data as an artifact of the computation? The most straightforward ...
Trev's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
150 views

Self referential hash function possible?

Is there a hashing function $f$ that for each input $x$ if $f(x) = y$, then $f(x \, || \, y) = y$? In other words, if we concatenate its output with the input, the result will not change. Furthermore, ...
prog's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
175 views

Perfect ordered hash function on ordered sequence

I have a sequence of integer tuples $t_1, t_2,..., t_N$ of different sizes in lexicographic order, e.g.: $(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3, 5), (1, 3, 6), (1, 5), (3), (3, 2, 3), (3, 7), (3, 8, 1), ...$ ...
Andrey Godyaev's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
81 views

How to properly save Zobrist Keys?

In a project of mine, I want to represent states as efficiently as possible. Initially, I went ahead with a BitBoard representation and some clever tricks to speed up the evaluation of the game tree. ...
J. M. Arnold's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
76 views

Perfect hash function that weakly preserves leading zeros

I need a perfect hash function that maps 2 integers into one integer twice the size (i.e. $(Int64, Int64) \rightarrow Int128$). The function preserves sum of leading zero bits: $(0, 0) \rightarrow 0$ ...
Andrey Godyaev's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
186 views

Simple Uniform hashing with chances of no collision

I know that if I have $n$ different values in an array of size $m$ (where $m>n$) under simple uniform hashing, the average probability of the total number of collisions is: $$\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}\frac{...
Mike's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
117 views

Order-preserving hashtable for integer tuples

There are integer tuples which index cells of a sparse multi-dimensional array (points inside n-parallelepiped), $n \le 32$. The array itself is a BST with keys formed as $key = (...((a_0 * S_1 + a_1) ...
Andrey Godyaev's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
188 views

How to use a worst case scenario in Rolling Hash: Rabin Karp Algorithm when the given string only contains the occurrences of "a and b?"

Issue: I am having a hard time figuring out how to use the worst case for Rolling Hash, especially if the occurrences are only "a and b" for the string. Not only that but it is a bit of a ...
Ralph Henry's user avatar
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0 answers
64 views

Why using nC2*1/365 to calculate the birthday paradox is incorrect

The birthday paradox is basically that assume there are 365 days in a year(ignore the effect of Febuary 29th), each person's birthday is uniformly random in these 365 days and independent with others. ...
Jack Duan's user avatar
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2 answers
55 views

Is there any algorithm to find all unique pairs of People with age equal to a given number in less than O(n²)

I have a problem where I have to find all the pairs of a list of People where the sum of their age is equal to a given number under time complexity less than O(N²) ...
David Hoyos's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
30 views

Sampling unique records from a large dataframe

Suppose we have a dataframe with ~10M rows with ~9M duplicate records. What is the most time efficient way of selecting the unique records from this dataframe? Some sort of sampling algorithm?
Timeguy322's user avatar
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1 answer
61 views

Universal family of hash functions — dependent on table size?

Given the following family of hash functions: $$ \mathbb{H} = \{h_c(x) = (12x + c) \bmod m \mid c \in \mathbb{N} \}, $$ where $m$ is the key size. Prove that $\mathbb{H}$ is not a universal ...
blox2212's user avatar
-5 votes
1 answer
566 views

Implementing Flajolet–Martin algorithm in Python

I am stuck on what to do. I am trying to create a simple implementation of the Flajolet–Martin algorithm using Python. The stream will be the contents of a text file and you will produce an ...
Hill Paul's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
219 views

the load factor in hash table

What is numerically the best value or range of values used as a reference for the load factor used in the hash table? What is the pseudo-code of the “rehashing” method, which is applied when many ...
user id's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
494 views

Hash / Compression algorithm to shorten text?

I desperately need a hash / compression function that is suited to shorten text. The context is this: I want to bring order and sort my box with hundreds of charging adapters (duh). After I determined ...
PandaPhi's user avatar
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1 answer
208 views

Consistent Hashing Algorithm Without Distribution / Load Balancing

I need some help finding or creating a consistent hashing algorithm with the following properties: Given N buckets, only distributes keys to bucket N. When number of buckets are increased from N to N+...
scroobius's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Averege time complexity of open addressing

I get that it depends from the number of probes, so by how many times the hash code has to be recalculeted, and that in the best case there will only be one computation of the hash code and the ...
Spyromancer's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Where does 2^32 come from with bitcoin?

Several months ago I was doing research into calculating mining revenue for several crypto currencies. When trying to calculate BTC revenue I found this value 1/2^32 which was described somewhere ...
Joe's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
59 views

How do these Crypto terms relate to each other and what do they all mean?

Alright this is another day of my pursuit to learn about how crypto works. I have several terms that I have found linked together. I was trying to do research on how the Target Hash is determined and ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 51
0 votes
2 answers
60 views

What happens in the event of a collision in a crypto hash function?

I was reading about hash functions in crypto and a website had mentioned that they were collision free, which obviously isn't possible if there are infinite input values that are mapped to outputs of ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 51
1 vote
0 answers
22 views

Algorithm Complexity Question

this is my first question on this site and I would like to preface this by saying I am not very savvy when it comes to Computer Science. So, I will try to ask this the best I can. I was doing some ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 51
1 vote
1 answer
54 views

Locality Sensitive Hashing for Sets

Are there locality sensitive hashes that work nicely with sets? Each set would get a hash, the order of the elements in the set does not change the hash, and sets that share more elements are closer ...
user12878817821's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
97 views

Splitting the output of a wide hash in lieu of multiple independent hashes

Certain algorithms require two independent hash functions. An optimization I've seen is to split the output of a wide hash function and use the parts instead of the two independent hash functions of ...
Dumbfounded's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
520 views

Optimal parameters for a Bloom filter

My first question here. Please do not judge me much if this is a too simple. Some text consists of $n=12\,500$ distinct words. I would like to construct a Bloom filter with $\epsilon=10^{-2}$ ...
yarchik's user avatar
  • 125
0 votes
1 answer
43 views

Confused about the appropriate slot in linear probing

The following paragraph is from the book CLRS: Given an ordinary hash function $h' : U \rightarrow \{0, 1, ..., m - 1\}$, which we refer to as an auxiliary hash function, the method of linear probing ...
Emad's user avatar
  • 411
1 vote
1 answer
44 views

Fingerprint functions for set equality checks?

Given I have two sets of objects $A =\{a, b, c\}$ and $B = \{a, b, c, a\}$ Based on the set equality, I want the fingerprint of these sets to be the same $F(A) = F(B)$. Additionally I want to be able ...
zetaprime's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
1 answer
163 views

Analysis of a calculation of expected number of collisions in hashing

For a formal problem statement, I quote from the text Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen et. al Suppose we use a hash function $h$ to hash $n$ distinct keys into an array $T$ of length $m$. ...
Abhishek Ghosh's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
77 views

Finding a hash function, so that the set of hash functions is universal

Problem: Let $U = \{0,1,2,3,4,5\}$ be a universe of keys and $T = \{0,1,2\}$ we observe follwing 5 hash functions which map from $U$ to $T$ : $$h_1(x) = (x+1) \mod{3} \hspace{5mm} h_2(x) = (x+2) \mod{...
Mark Lauer's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
183 views

How do i delete one single unequal element from an array of equal elements without using hashing?

The rules of the question state that: Only one element is different. Rest are all same. Array A size is 8. I need to find the different element and remove it (Hashing cannot be used). I have not ...
Swarnava Chandra Bose's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
63 views

How to efficiently see if a value is in a set

I was curious is there a really efficient way to see if a value is in a set? This question comes from me thinking about youtube views. As far as I understand youtube view count goes up for every ...
Bhagyesh's user avatar
  • 113
3 votes
1 answer
345 views

A question about hash problems in CLRS book

Consider the following problem 11.2-6 from CLRS book: Suppose we have stored $n$ keys in a hash table of size $m$, with collisions resolved by chaining, and that we know the length of each chain, ...
Ahmad's user avatar
  • 323
1 vote
1 answer
196 views

A hash function for a 2D hash table with a scattering property?

I have an $n\times n$ matrix, and want to find a bijective function $h:[n^2] \to [n]\times [n]$ that can act as a hash function to map the numbers 1 through $n^2$ to row/column indices in my matrix. ...
RJL's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Check if string contains pattern (with respect to one-to-one symbols mapping) [closed]

I'm trying to solve following problem: Check, if the string contains substring, that can be obtained from pattern using one to one lower case symbols replacement (using bijection between original ...
curious.researcher's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
121 views

Expected Lookup Length in Open Addressing Hash Table with Simple Uniform Hashing

In several proofs of the expected lookup length in an open addressing hash table, an assumption is made (which is said to follow from the "simple uniform hashing assumption": Given a hash ...
zagortenay333's user avatar

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