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Questions tagged [history]

Questions about genesis and development of computer science as a scientific discipline and its applications.

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2
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0answers
12 views

Similarities between Babbage's difference engine and the Turing machine

What would you consider similarities between the difference engine and the Turing machine? At this point I feel I know how they both function, yet I can't point out any worthwhile similarities between ...
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5answers
14k views

How not to solve P=NP?

There are lots of attempts at proving either $\mathsf{P} = \mathsf{NP} $ or $\mathsf{P} \neq \mathsf{NP}$, and naturally many people think about the question, having ideas for proving either direction....
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27 views

Who invented the adder, full-adder, half-adder?

I didn't find, in the digital design books, who invented the adders. The same person invented the half-adder and the full-adder? What's the oldest publication on digital arithmetic design?
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19 views

When did our current concepts of program modularity develop?

I take it that the concept of a modular subroutine call/return existed prior to the concept of a call stack (and hence to the possibility of recursive subroutines or of recursion limits). I would ...
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1answer
127 views

Why are struct and class essentially the same in C++?

struct and class in C++ are nearly identical (as covered for example here). But why is this so? What did happen when C++ was ...
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0answers
152 views

Dennis Ritchie citation for “the C declarator syntax is an experiment that failed”?

I've often heard that the C declarator syntax described as "an experiment that failed." I've seen claims that this sentiment is also shared by its creator Dennis Ritchie. Does anybody have an actual ...
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2answers
239 views

How Babbage's Analytic engine made calculations of unlimited extent?

Brian Randell, in his article The COLOSSUS, explains how computing ushered in the 20th Century, by the development of the Colossus computer. He cites a passage from the Passages from the Life of a ...
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3answers
8k views

What is the difference between Babbage's analytical and difference engine?

What is the difference between Babbage's analytical and difference engine? Can they even be compared?
13
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3answers
3k views

What is the origin of the client server model?

I was wondering if someone knew the origin of the client server model. Where does the term come from (paper, software application, book)?
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28 views

How many floating point ops were performed worldwide over a time interval [closed]

I am looking for information regarding the evolution of computing capability. Specifically I would like to know how many floating point operations were performed worldwide from, say, the deployment of ...
13
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1answer
327 views

Random Access Machines with only addition, multiplication, equality

The literature is fairly clear that unit-cost RAMs with primitive multiplication are unreasonable, in that they cannot be simulated by Turing machines in polynomial time can solve PSPACE-complete ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Lambda Calculus as a branch of set theory

This answer to a question about whether C is the mother of all languages contained an interesting tidbit that I am curious about: The functional paradigm, for example, was developed mathematically (...
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35 views

Design considerations of datatypes in early programming languages like C

Although type theory originated (e.g. already discussed by Russell in 1910s) much earlier than programming languages, I have this feeling that languages such as C considered type-checking from a very ...
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116 views

Four Pillars of Object Oriented Programming

I'm researching object oriented programming and I've come across the term "four pillars of OOP" in a few places now. I originally saw them listed as: Abstraction Encapsulation Inheritance ...
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7answers
71k views

Why do we need assembly language?

We mostly write programme in high level language. So while studying I came across assembly language. So an assembler converts assembly language to machine language and a compiler does the same with ...
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0answers
51 views

Is McCarthy Formalism first ever formalism for defining functions recursively in computer science?

McCarthy formalism is a formalism for defining functions recursively, first introduced in classic paper Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I (1960). ...
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1answer
38 views

Origin of a story about a computer in the 50's recommending offing Pensioners [closed]

There's a story I've heard a few times in various computer science talks, usually offered as a cautionary tale, that goes something like this: In the late 50s, the British gov't purchased an early ...
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1answer
29 views

Interpretation of Turing's statement on universal computers

I'm currently reading a book about artificial intelligence and i frequently come across the concept of universal computers, as it is essential to understand the book i would like to know the meaning ...
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1answer
138 views

Reason programming language B was named “B”?

I’ve searched around for this already but ironically the results have been overshadowed by “Why C was named C” instead. If C was named “C” because it came after B, why was B named "B", since the only ...
6
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1answer
222 views

Who first introduced the pushdown automaton?

I'm interested in learning more about the history of automata theory and have tracked down many of the original papers on Turing machines, finite automata, and the like. However, I'm having trouble ...
1
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1answer
47 views

How the concept of computer change over time? [closed]

There was a time when a "computer" was a person who worked on accounts. However, machines were introduced and this profession eventually died out over time. The definition below was taken from pag 750 ...
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1answer
41 views

Did Date and Darwen's “Third Manifesto” have a lasting impact?

In 1995, two DB theory researchers, C.J. Date and H. Darwen, published a text with the rather impressive-sounding name "The Third Manifesto" with their ideas regarding future DBMSes, which would ...
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1answer
179 views

The origin and the meaning of “Abstract Syntax Tree”

This question is closely related to Does an abstract syntax tree have to be a tree? and is partially answered there, but I would like to be more precise and to have more concise answers. What is the ...
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1answer
40 views

Problems with decidability open (for a long time) proven decidable

It seems to me that problems whose dedicability remains open for a long time, if resolved, tend to end up being undecidable. A prominent example would be (e.g.) Hilbert's tenth problem, whose ...
2
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1answer
56 views

liskov substitution principle seems to have two conventional meanings

This is a question about the semantics of the name, rather than about the principle itself. What is the Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)? LSP seems to have two meanings in the literature I've ...
2
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1answer
112 views

What was Robert Floyd's algorithm for inserting brackets?

In page 71 of Mathematics for Computer Science (page 77 in the pdf) it says that "The Turing award (the “Nobel Prize” of computer science) was ultimately bestowed on Robert Floyd, for, among other ...
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71 views

Which languages, if any, implemented parametric polymorphism before ML?

In particular, was there any kind of implementation at the time Christopher Strachey wrote Fundamental Concepts in Programming Languages? In that work, Strachey lists Ad Hoc and Parametric ...
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1answer
36 views

Why strokes are treated differently than fills in modern graphics pipelines

This article shows some of the issues. But basically, on the web, you have fillStyle and strokeStyle, and in WebGL you have ...
2
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2answers
153 views

Machine code and punched cards

I have been looking into the history of programming, and everybody and their grandmothers begin the subject with a claim more or less similar to the following: At first, programmers used machine ...
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1answer
105 views

Famous hacker koan: who was it about, though?

Read this many years ago and can't remember who it was about. Nor can I remember the exact quote. The story goes: Famous computer scientist/professor is teaching a class. Student is having some ...
31
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2answers
2k views

Why is a regular language called 'regular'?

I have just completed the first chapter of the Introduction to the Theory of Computation by Michael Sipser which explains the basics of finite automata. He defines a regular language as anything ...
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34 views

How did the first computer model display text? [duplicate]

I have a question ive not been able to explain, and I still cant find the answer looking through computer history. I want to know how the first letters were programmed into the first computer. Let me ...
6
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0answers
93 views

Where did our present regex notation originate?

First question, and my apologies if it is off-topic! This question suggests to me I may not be totally off-base. Where did our present regex notation originate? I am particularly wondering how <...
2
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0answers
43 views

Literature similar to Minsky's “Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence” (1961)?

With great pleasure I was just reviewing Marvin Minsky's publication "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence" from 1961. Now I would like to know whether there are any more compilations about the ...
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0answers
49 views

Combining Computer Science and Humanities

I currently hold a bachelors in Computer science and a masters in Art History. I really want to combine the two and I know of Digital Humanities but I'm not completely aware of where Digital Humanists ...
6
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1answer
881 views

What is the origin of dot notation?

In object-oriented programming, dot notation is used when accessing the properties or methods of a class: ...
3
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0answers
79 views

Was there a phase in Machine Learning timeline when researchers thought some Neural Networks could not be trained?

I was talking to a professor who made a comment to my question. Me: So much of quality literature around this topic ( IP Protection for Neural Weights) emanated in 1990-1991, I'm truly at loss ...
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5answers
1k views

Why call it 'Time Complexity'?

P.S. I have added the tag 'history', if there is any historical connotation. Also, I found this question What is running time of an algorithm? but I am not satisfied with answers.
3
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1answer
51 views

Why pointer dereference was once called “decrement”?

I'm reading McCarthy's paper Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions And Their Computation by Machine, where when the author describes the machine implementation of lists, he writes this: a. ...
73
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2answers
7k views

What does the “Lambda” in “Lambda calculus” stand for?

I've been reading about Lambda calculus recently but strangely I can't find an explanation for why it is called "Lambda" or where the expression comes from. Can anyone explain the origins of the term?...
2
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1answer
73 views

Is what the all-zeroes instruction does considered in machine instruction design?

I remember using a simulated machine with with a minimal instruction set in university. In particular I remember that the instruction that consisted of all zeroes loaded was a ...
0
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2answers
55 views

Do Core Computer Programs Have To Function By Powers Of 2? [closed]

As an example, the sRGB Gamut is 256 x 256 x 256 (all powers of 2). I'm aware that computers are generally binary. However, is it simply a matter of simplicity that sRGB was made this way, or was it ...
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1answer
58 views

Are there any languages without tokens?

I know a lot of computer languages and they all use tokens. E.g. in very early BASIC you could say LET answer = 42, which is composed of seven tokens, ...
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1answer
512 views

What was the first Turing-Complete programming language?

What was the first turing-complete language? Know about the first machines and computers, but not the programming language.
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21 views

Punch-card computers running today

Are there any systems that operate primarily by punch cards (loading/saving data) in production usage today? (Or at least up to the year 2000?)
10
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1answer
122 views

What did Turing's mysterious small programme on the Manchester computer calculate?

I am reading Turing's "Computing machinery and intelligence" paper (https://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf) and found a fragment in which he says: I have set up on the Manchester ...
3
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1answer
147 views

Who was the first to show that there is a Universal Turing-Machine that uses a binary alphabet?

The title says it all, I think. We know there are universal Turing-machines that only use a binary alphabet. But who proved this first? Turing himself showed the existence of a universal Turing ...
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2answers
2k views

How are programming languages and foundations of mathematics related?

Basically I am aware of three foundations for math Set theory Type theory Category theory So in what ways are programming languages and foundations of mathematics related? EDIT The original ...
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1answer
88 views

When did “regular” start referring to Type 3 languages/grammars?

In his 1959 paper, On Certain Formal Properties of Grammars, Chomsky defined a "regular" grammar as a specific form of a type 2 (context-free) grammar. (See Definition 8 of that paper.) He then goes ...
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1answer
161 views

How was multiprogramming brought into computer languages

I am going through the book operating system principles by Hansen . Hansen begins the third chapter on concurrent programming by discussing interleaving of the machine instructions of processes being ...