Questions tagged [logic]

Questions related to mathematical logic and its use in computer science

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Algorithm for automatic construction of natural deduction proofs

I was wondering if there exists any algorithm for automatic construction of nautral deduction proofs. I'm interested in propositional logic and first order logic. If there is no algoritm, can you ...
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35 views

Algorithm for deducing values

I have a group of logical conditions and need to deduce values that would NOT satisfy them. For example: City != New York && Location = Museum ...
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50 views

Did Wheeler really believe that physics was undecidable?

John Archibald Wheeler was a famous physicist It has been stated that he thought that there was a strong connection between undecidability and quantum physics This idea was given an early ...
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Substituting a term for a variable in a context

At this link you can read Nicola Gambino's slides on one way to approach the formal syntax of Martin-Löf dependent type theory. (They are concise and very readable.) On slide 10, he gives a standard ...
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Is it possible to do forward-chaining in Prolog?

Prolog (or any logic programming system) actually acts as SAT solver, that returns the valid values for the variables that are mentioned in the query. It can also be used as theorem prover if one does ...
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12 views

Logical inference as Markov decision process?

Are there efforts to consider forward or backward (theorem proving) logical inference process as Markov decision process in which the the action space is: 1) selection of the inference rule (e.g. from ...
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1answer
33 views

Examples for Partial Combinatory Algebras

I am currently working on my Bachelor thesis about Turing Categories (see Introduction to Turing Categories [1]). In this context I got some questions regarding Partial Combinatory Algebras (PCAs), ...
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Prove propositional formula is a tautology [closed]

I need to show this formula is a theorem of propositional calculus. I tried assuming antecedent and proving consequent but didn't work for this proof. Do I need to show it is equivalent to true? How ...
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Why does the unbounded $\mu$ operator preserve effective computability?

Let $f$ be a partial function from $\mathbb{N}^{p+1}$ to $\mathbb{N}$. The partial function $(x_1,...,x_p)\mapsto \mu y[f(x_1,...,x_p,y)=0]$ is defined in the following way: If there exists at least ...
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30 views

Is there a correspondence of steps between DPLL and sequent-calculus?

Is there a correspondence between the steps in using DPLL to find out that a formula in propositional logic is unsatisfiable and using sequent calculus to prove that its negation is valid? And given ...
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1answer
33 views

Translation of diagnosis problem to SAT

I have the following diagnosis problem: h(A): z1 = not(in1) h(D): z2 = not(in2) h(B): z3 = z1 or z2 h(C): out1 = not(z3) h(E): out2 = not(z3) This is an image of the system: I have an observation ...
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Two questions on MSO

First question : Is the following formula a valid MSO formula? $\theta(S, r) = \exists (e_1, t_1), ... ,(e_h, t_h) \bigwedge\limits_{(e_i, e_j) \in \rho(S,r)} \mathcal{R}((e_i, t_i), (e_j, t_j)...
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39 views

MSO (Monadic second-order logic) Logic On Words

Let L be a language over $\Sigma = \{a,b,c\}$ that contains all words, where the length $|w|_b$ (number of all b's) has remainder 1 if divided by 3. MSO logic over words are definded as follow: I ...
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1answer
48 views

What is the connection between the logic and the logic programming?

As I understand, then logic (i.e. particular theory of logic with some theory's axioms and some possible assignments of the variables) describes some specific world (in the non-modal case) or some set ...
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1answer
30 views

How to draw an LTS based on the parallel process “|” in CCS Milner's logic?

I'm trying to provide a Hennessy-Milner logic formula for CCS expressions that are not (strongly) bisimilar. An example with a sketch: For each of the following CCS expressions, decide whether ...
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62 views

Law as a computer science problem?

For a long time, computer scientists and logicians have noticed that law (statutes, contracts, adjudication, etc), has some similarity with formal logic and programming languages, and have approached ...
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49 views

What is this weird gate?

This came from a picture of something that I'm supposed to make, and I can't find it in the program I'm supposed to use (LogicWorks). It looks like it 'not's only one of its inputs, but that doesn't ...
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204 views

The barbers paradox first order logic formalization

I tried to look on the site and while I found some similar questions, I did not find the first order logic formalization of the following sentence (the basic barber's paradox), so I wanted to ask if I ...
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1answer
36 views

Modeling equality in an ILP

Lets say we have integer variables $a \in\mathbb{Z}^n$ and $M \in\{0,1\}^{n\times L}$. I am promised $a_i \leq L$, for some fixed constant $L$. I want to model the constraint $$M_{i,j} \iff (a_i=j)$...
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31 views

Aggregate text data of some particular column

I have a dataset as follows ...
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1answer
42 views

Efficient method for generating the smoothing function

The smoothing function of a boolean function with respect to one of its variables is the disjunction of its cofactors. For example given a Boolean function F(a,b,c) the cofactors with respect to a are ...
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1answer
37 views

Logic of multiple variables in ILP

Is there a better way to represent an AND of $n$ variables together other than creating $O(n)$ new variables and constraints?
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1answer
39 views

Basic second-order logic example contains a mistake?

I'm reading the following course on second-order logic, by Péter Mekis : http://phil.elte.hu/mekis/sol.pdf . The course seems excellent, but I'm stuck on one of his first examples for showing the ...
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How do we know $\neg \neg LEM$ isn't provable in MLTT?

I've been trying (fruitlessly) to prove something which I now know is not provable. Take the following definitions: $$LEM \equiv \prod_{A : Type} \neg A \vee A$$ $$DNE \equiv \prod_{A : Type} \neg \...
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What is the minimun type of logical system that recognizes if a formalized sentence is a well-formed formula thus reducible to the boolean value?

The formula, in the old way of using it, can contain symbols in order and a mixture that does not meet the criteria of correctness (i.e. arbitrary symbols do not form a well-formed formula (WFF) and ...
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1answer
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List of all possible reasoning tasks - satisfiability and theorem proving only?

What is the exhaustive list of reasoning tasks? As far as I can understand, then any logical reasoning reduces to 2 tasks only: 1) satisfiability problem (finding the assignment of the variables) and ...
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how do we demonstrate using Boolean algebra that these NAND and NOR gate combinations are XOR gates

How do we demonstrate using Boolean algebra that these NAND and NOR gate combinations are XOR gates?
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42 views

Are the two LTL properties $GF(\psi_1 \land F\psi_2 )$ and $GF(\psi_2 \land F\psi_1 )$ equivalent?

Is $GF(\psi_1 \land F\psi_2 )$ equivalent to the property $GF(\psi_2 \land F\psi_1 )$? Attempt: In the first property each state must eventually see $\psi_1$ and $\psi_2$, in the second property as ...
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1answer
33 views

Boolean expression for sum bit of full adder

The Boolean expression I find on the internet for the sum bit of a full adder is A xor B xor Cin. Does't this expression exclude the A=1,B=1,Cin=1 situation? When that happens, the sum bit is also 1, ...
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26 views

Algorithm to find possible variables in multiple connected equations

I am new here. I am trying to come up with an algorithm that can give me the unknown values in the following equation. ...
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27 views

Handling $AND$ and $OR$ cases in MILP?

Suppose I want to have an integer program for handling the cases $x_1>1\wedge x_2>1\wedge x_3>1\wedge\dots\wedge x_n>1\iff\delta=1$ $x_1>1\vee x_2>1\vee x_3>1\vee\dots\vee x_n&...
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Hoare triple: Loop invariant and correctness

The following Hoare triple in which variable a is an array of integers, and len, max, i, n, j and m are integer-valued variables. Provide a loop invariant (using predicate logic) suitable for proving ...
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Hoare triple: Loop invariant and partial correctness

Below there is Hoare triple in which variable $a$ is an array of integers, $len$, $x, i$ are integer-valued variables, and $r$ is a Boolean-valued variable. I have to provide a loop invariant (using ...
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34 views

kPDA handling multiple epsilon transtions

I'm assigned to build a kPDA with 2 stacks that handles {w#w, where w is a string of (0,1)*}. I understand the # delineates the two strings, but I'm unsure of the logic when popping off stacks with ...
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2answers
82 views

What are the other language models of computation similar to lambda calculus?

I hope this question makes sense, but I was wondering if there are other models of computation similar to lambda calculus that you can use to build up axiomatic mathematical and logical fundamentals ...
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Why do ¬, ∀ and ∃ have the same precedence?

I thought the order of precedence of operators and quantifiers was arbitrary, but I don't really understand why those three have the same "strength" in relation to other operators (e.g., ¬ will have ...
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How do I get the NAND gate configuration for full adder from the logic table?

I'm self-studying, but I've gotten stuck already. If I'm given the logic table for a full-adder or any two-output table, how do I figure out the NAND-gate configuration, preferably methodically? ...
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40 views

Can we ignore the postcondition in the Hoare conditional rule when there is a return statement?

I'm proving the correctness of naive string matching using Hoare logic. I have the following pseudocode: ...
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1answer
85 views

Negation of the semantics of the Until operator in LTL

I have been looking at the Until operator and the release operator and when introduced to the release operator it was suggested that it is equivalent to: $\phi R \psi \equiv \neg(\neg\phi U \neg \psi)...
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35 views

Turing Machine where branches are resolved via arbitrary operator

Alternating Turing Machines output Boolean values and combine the values returned by branches via the any/all operators. Is ...
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2answers
63 views

If a NAND gate is universal, why you don't have NAND OISCs

If a NAND gate can be used to construct all other of the basic logic gates, then I'm wondering why you don't/can't have a purely NAND-based One Instruction Set Computer (OISC). All the OISC single ...
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Can we see all of mathematics as an attempt to simplify computations?

This is a rather strong claim, and therefore likely to be incorrect, but hear me out. Firstly, when I talk of “computations”, I mean this in a broader sense than normally used, because I am including ...
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43 views

(Generally) How to specify asynchronous action with side effects using logic equations

Say you have this function call sequence: function all() { fn1() fn2() fn3() } And say that fn2 was asynchronous and ...
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1answer
38 views

Examples of logic gates using non-standard models

These are the only ones I have been able to find online: Pulley Logic Gates Marble adding machine MARBLE COMPUTER LOGICAL AND GATE I would like to find some more discrete models like these (as ...
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1answer
57 views

LTL to Büchi automaton, deterministic?

I know it is possible to convert LTL formulas to Büchi automatons. But is it possible to convert a LTL formula to a deterministic Büchi automaton? Are there formulas that can't be converted to a ...
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1answer
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How to understand the notion of boolean query via Immerman's definition

A query is any mapping $I:STRUC[\sigma] \to STRUC[\tau]$ that is polynomially bounded. A boolean query is a map $I_b: STRUC[\sigma] \to \{0,1\}$. A boolean query can also be thought as the susbset: $...
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104 views

Interesting logic problems

I've just began a course on logic and learned the following : De Morgan's laws Normal forms How to represent a logical formula (using or, and, not operators) using binary trees How to ...
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D flip flop : How does it work in depth

I'm coming to you today because I have some trouble to understand how works D flip flop in depth. Two weeks ago we started at school learning sequential logic and so register and everything that come ...
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64 views

Topology vs sigma-algebra's as a framework for approximate information?

In the book "topology via logic" by Steven Vickers, topology is introduced for computer scientists, with the idea that topology captures the idea of approximate information. I am somewhat confused ...
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152 views

Decidability of equivalence to existential formulas

I'm looking for an algorithm to decide if a given first order formula over a fixed vocabulary admits a logically equivalent existential one (i.e. a formula in prenex form where all quantifiers are ...