Questions tagged [loops]

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21
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1answer
1k views

Does a do-while loop suffice for Turing-completeness?

I know that, in imperative programming languages, a while-do loop is sufficient as a control flow construct to make the language Turing-complete (as far as control flow goes - of course we also need ...
13
votes
3answers
9k views

Why are loops faster than recursion?

In practice I understand that any recursion can be written as a loop (and vice versa(?)) and if we measure with actual computers we find that loops are faster than recursion for the same problem. But ...
8
votes
2answers
305 views

How to bridge theory and implementation for while loops?

I'm working on my own little programming language for educational purposes, and I've run into a little bit of a problem. There are a few different solutions for it, but all of them seem inelegant - ...
7
votes
2answers
615 views

Loop variant for a while loop that occasionally doesn't decrease?

I'm working on practice problems for a test I have, and every example of loop variant decreased with every iteration of the loop. On this one, the values remain the same when a < b. My attempts ...
6
votes
5answers
3k views

How can a computer run an infinite loop?

I understand the concept behind for and do/while loops, but I am trying to understand what is happening at the hardware level that allows a loop to run infinitely. Technically wouldn't it have to stop ...
6
votes
3answers
14k views

What is the asymptotic runtime of this nested loop? [duplicate]

I am trying to analyse the runtime of this algorithm: for(i=1; i < n; i++){ for(j=1; j <= i; j++){ statement1; } } Expanding the ...
6
votes
2answers
724 views

Looping and branching with Algorithmic Differentiation

Algorithmic (aka Automatic) Differentiation is a wonderful technique for numerical computation of derivatives. I understand how it relates to the fact that we know how to deal with every elementary ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Loops at low level

When programming with high level languages like Python or Matlab, it is always better to model the problem such as the solution is some kind of vector or matrix multiplication, to avoid loops. But ...
5
votes
1answer
449 views

From Guido's essays, how does this function avoid quadratic behavior in a string concatenation algorithm?

I am reading one of Guido van Rossum's essays on optimization in Python. We are interested in converting a Python list of integers to their character equivalents. Here's the straightforward ...
5
votes
0answers
179 views

How Janus (Reversible Programming Language) `if`, `while`, and Update Work

In Reversible Computing, all program statements are reversible. I understand for example that the following: \begin{align} x\ {+}&{=}\ 4\\ y\ {*}&{=}\ x\\ x\ {-}&{=}\ 10 \end{align} Has ...
4
votes
1answer
9k views

Triple nested for-loops [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: A puzzle related to nested loops I am trying to count the exact/total number of iterations the following nested for-loops are executed: ...
4
votes
2answers
9k views

Time complexity formula of nested loops

I've just begun this stage 2 Compsci paper on algorithms, and stuff like this is not my strong point. I've come across this in my lecture slides. ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Analyzing programs with multiple for-loops

If they were all linked to make a condition such as ($1 < i < j < k < n$), I know how to solve, but the last loop is disconnected so I have no clue on how to do these... the ones like <...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Recurrence relations when function call is made inside loop

int fun (int n) { int x=1, k; if (n==1) return x; for (k=1; k<n; ++k) x = x + fun(k) * fun(n – k); return x; } What is the value of fun(5)? I ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

time complexity when power is involved in iteration

How do I calculate the time complexity of the following method? Would you please provide explanation? I know it's going to involve sqrt(n) * <something>. I ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Amortised analysis of a simple loop and 3 operations

I'm trying to figure out amortised analysis of this loop and I can't figure out how to prove that complexity is $O(n \log n)$. Operation OP(S,X[i]) has complexity ...
3
votes
1answer
641 views

Running time function for an algorithm with while and for loop

I have trouble determining the running time function for algorithm below. I know that there are initially two assignment operations, int i=n and ...
3
votes
1answer
759 views

Theta Runtime of Nested for Loops

I have two for loops, one nested within the other. I have two int variables n and U, where U > n. I know that the outer loop runs exactly U times (pretty much <...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Explanation of a simple algorithm's Big O complexity

I'm looking at a past paper, where there is the following Algorithm, and we are asked to give the runtime in O notation: ...
2
votes
5answers
572 views

Do recursive algorithms generally perform better than their for-loop counterpart?

I'm sure this is not a challenge for you but it remains an open question for me: Is it wise to prefer a recursive algorithm over its for-loop counterpart? E.g. take the evaluation of the natural ...
2
votes
1answer
134 views

Nested loops: Still $\mathcal O(n)$?

I have an algorithm similar to this: i=1 while(i < n) { //something in O(1) while(i < n && cond) { //something in O(1) i++ } i++ } ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Time complexity of a triple nested loop with squared indices

I have seen this function in past year exam paper. ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Costs of updating arrays to contain only zeroes

To initialize an array of length $n$ has complexity $O(n)$, as far as I understand. If I set every element to zero (with one code line), does that have time complexity $O(n)$ also? And in that case, ...
2
votes
3answers
556 views

Analyzing the time complexity of nested loops

So I've been given a piece of pseudo code that involves nested loops. The answer to this question is Θ(n^5) but I do not understand why it is so. What is the time complexity of this code? ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Can LOOP-Programm stop when its value goes below 0?

I am wondering, if in the LOOP programing language, whether instances of the LOOP x DO P END are defined to stop in the case $x < 0$. The definition only says "...
2
votes
1answer
386 views

Proving correctness of an exponentiation routine

I have the following exponentiation routine, which takes $O(\log n)$ steps ...
2
votes
2answers
46 views

Quotient in LOOP program [closed]

I want to construct a LOOP-computable program for the integer division (quotient): x = a DIV b The LOOP specification can be seen here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOOP_(programming_language) I ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Big Oh notation for a function with two inputs of linear growth

I'm quite new to time-complexity analysis so I might have misunderstood some basic concepts but lets say we have the following function: ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Recursion call inside a for loop time

I'm analyzing a piece of code that has a recursive call inside a for loop such as: ...
2
votes
1answer
371 views

What is more effective, a do while or a while?

I mean, with the same code, if I modify a do while into a while in this way: do {$S;$} while ($B$) into a $S;$ while ($B$){$S;$} , there is any change in the code? B = condition S; = instructions
2
votes
1answer
279 views

Can a vectorized computation always be parallelized?

If the question appears vague, I'll gladly clarify. It's not tied to a programing language. If there is a language dependency in the answer, one can place it in the context of Python, R, VB, ...
2
votes
1answer
246 views

Why does the insertion-sort algorithm have a quadratic instead of a quasi-linear time complexity?

Can someone explain how the insertion sort have quadratic time complexity and not quasi-linear time complexity in the worst-case? Even in the case of a reversely sorted list, it's not like it'll have ...
2
votes
1answer
517 views

How can I convert a for loop to a recursive function?

My loop is pretty simple. The function takes in two parameters, a and b; both are integers where a<=b. The function will then create a list of numbers from a to b. This is what I created: ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Print to video permutations

You want to print vectors with n elements, where: the first element can have the values: e1.1, e1.2, e1.2; the second element can assume the values: e2.1, e2.2, e2.3; ...; ...; the nth element can ...
2
votes
1answer
370 views

Big O complexity of algorithm with a nested for loop only running once

I have been debating with someone about the big O complexity of the following algorithm. We have a different understanding of the theory. Basically one of us thinks that this algo is automatically O(N^...
2
votes
1answer
407 views

Calculate Complexity, loop incremented by log(k)

I'm preparing for an exam, and I ran across the following algorithm: ...
2
votes
1answer
489 views

Simplifying a nested sum

I'm trying to analyze an algorithm of a function, I can express the function in term of summation, but I have no clues on how I could simplify this summation down to get the run-time in tern of big $O$...
2
votes
2answers
257 views

When are range-based for loops better than regular for loops? [closed]

Is it when you need faster performance, to iterate over a container, or when you don't need an index variable? From my understanding it should be when you need to iterate over a container. Am I ...
2
votes
1answer
344 views

Time complexity of nested loops help [duplicate]

How exaclty do you determine this specific codes runtime is theta(n^2)??I can see theres two while loops which go from i and j to n but would like a more precise way of determing this? If someone ...
2
votes
0answers
558 views

What is the difference between a loop and a natural loop?

Is there a difference between a loop and a natural loop? Natural loops are defined as having a back edge to a head block that dominates it. If you have a natural loop nested inside of another ...
2
votes
0answers
45 views

A linear code, what is that?

I have been trying to understand the polytope model used for loop nest optimizations. Now while going through some of the thesis written on this, i came across the term/phrase "linear code" a number ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

What would be the time complexity if a recursive function is inside a loop? [duplicate]

I am confused in calculating the time complexity for a recursive function inside a loop. ...
2
votes
0answers
748 views

How can I use nested loops to print out this triangle word pattern? [closed]

I'm trying to make a pattern that looks like this: And am given this code to start: ...
1
vote
2answers
539 views

Average-Case Analysis of a Simple Max-Finding Algorithm

Given this piece of code: ...
1
vote
1answer
370 views

Why are functional programs considered slower than procedural counterparts asymptotically, if the opposite appears true?

I've read and been told way too many times that functional algorithms and data structures have an obligatory O(log(N)) slowdown in respect to their procedural (for-...
1
vote
1answer
444 views

provability of while loop vs for loop [closed]

I'm abit afraid to ask this question here seeing as I asked it on programmers SE already, the thing is I think the question is more about the underlying theory than the use in practice (or call it ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Find Number of even subarrays $O(n)$ [explanation needed]

So I found a solution to this problem here http://marcodiiga.github.io/number-of-even-sum-subarrays but I am unsure of exactly how it works. I get the premise that in order to have an even sum it must ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

Nested Loop Time Complexity vs Successive Loops

An algorithm has a calculation whose worst case time complexity $T(x)=O(x^2)$ that outputs solutions $y$ & $z$ for input $x$ (the algorithm's worst case time complexity is greater than quadratic ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

make Magic Square? [closed]

I need to write a function that takes in a 2D list, that is a NEARLY magic square, meaning that if you perform ONE swap, it becomes a magic square. The function would take in this nearly magic square, ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Runtime analysis of a nested loop

I have some difficulties performing the worst case analysis on this algorithm. The outermost loop is executed $2N$ times. The while loop, in the worst case, will increase by $2$ each time, so it ...