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# Questions tagged [mathematical-foundations]

Questions about the relation of (subfields of) computer science to the relevant mathematical foundations and their application.

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### Mathematical Foundation for Dimensioned Quantities?

Is there support in the foundation of mathematics for dimensioned quantities? Those immersed in real-world software problems, continually confront the absence of dimensioned quantities in programming ...
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### Resources for studying the mathematical foundations of machine learning, for someone from a math/physics background

I am a soon-to-be physics graduate student with a background in theoretical and experimental cosmology. In my work, I've often found myself applying machine learning models and techniques for the ...
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1 vote
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### How exactly does minimizing the L2 norm of w in SVR affect the model's ability to fit the data?

I have a solid grasp on why we minimize the L2 norm of the weight vector ( w ) in Support Vector Machines (SVM) for classification problems — it maximizes the margin between classes and helps the ...
3k views

### What are the conditions necessary for a programming language to have no undefined behavior?

For context, yesterday I posted Does the first incompleteness theorem imply that any Turing complete programming language must have undefined behavior?. Part of what prompted me to ask that question ...
150 views

### Is "Bitwise Complement Operator" (~ tilde) distributive?

To be more precise, Is ~(a+b) = ~a + ~b? Here, "~" bitwise NOT operator. I ran into this question while thinking about ...
1 vote
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### Division by zero in APL: assign return value 0 or 1

Recently I began learning a couple array based programming languages: Dyalog APL and BQN. And I cam across this peculiar manner in which division by zero is handled in Dyalog APL. Using the in-built ...
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### How to represent a point cloud in the pseudocode of an algorithm?

I am writing a scientific paper in which I describe some algorithms (using pseudocode) that have point clouds as inputs. In these algorithms, I need a mathematical structure to represent a point cloud....
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### How to show invariance under additive and multiplicative illumination changes

The task is to "Show that the transformation f -> ((ln fx)x, (ln fy)y) is invariant under additive and multiplicative illumination changes." From my lecture notes, for ((ln f)x, (ln f)y), ...
97 views

### Is the root function computationally equivalent to function application?

If a function type is representable by exponentiation, does it follow that function application is represented by the right inverse, roots? It would seem that roots consume a function's input to ...
6k views

### Could Gödel’s incompleteness theorem be circumvented with a quine?

As you all probably know, Gödel’s incompleteness theorem states, that it will never be possible for mathematics to prove its own correctness. Mainly because that proof would be part of mathematics too,...
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### Reading list for mathematics and formal logic with missing truth values?

I would like a reading list of math and formal logic books which give a principled discussion of missing values. Textbooks on mathematics and formal logic - propositional and first-order and higher-...
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### How to evaluate all the binary sequences, generated from $2^{100}$ for finding all the sequeces which contain minimum $10$ zeros?

Suppose I have a set of $2^{n}$ number of binary sequences. And I have to select only those sequences which contain a minimum ${P}$ number of $0$ in it. For example, please consider the below one Eg. ...
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### Efficient cardinality of set overlap relation

Assume that we have a set S of sets s. Every pair (s,s') in ...
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### Is discrete math enough for computer science ? Or there other Math topics that I should also learn With it?

I want to learn computer science, SO is discrete math enough for computer science ? Or there other Math topics that I should also learn With it ? I don’t have specific topic that I care more about ...
32 views

### How to specify mutated types mathematically?

Say I have an object which I pass to a method, and the method returns that same object, just mutated. So it goes like this: ...
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### Function notation/mapping for this type of functions?

In short, what is the proper function notation/mapping for this type of functions? From Wikipedia regarding maps: In the communities surrounding programming languages that treat functions as first-...
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### Prove that for any finite k = 1, 2, 3 … PCPk is decidable

Let PCPk be a version of PCP where we can use at most k copies of each domino to create correspondences. Prove that for any finite k = 1, 2, 3 … PCPk is decidable. I know this kind of PCP is called ...
1 vote
22 views

### Proof the number of expected node in a binary using mathematical induction

The following algorithm constructs a binary tree. ...
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### Papers on depth separations in neural networks

I am new to the domain of Machine learning. I have been asked to present a paper related to the mathematics behind the depth separations in Neural Networks (by Itay Safran, Ronen Eldan and Ohad Shamir)...
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### A set that is not polynomial time enumerable

For a set $I\subseteq \Bbb N$, defined $s_{I}(n)=\min\{i\in I\mid i>n\}$. The set $I$ is called polynomial-time-enumerable if $s_I(n)$ is computable in $\mathsf{poly}(n)$ time. Most of the sets I ...
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### "The Annotated Turing" on listing all binary numbers between 0 and 1

In his book "The Annotated Turing" in the first sentence on page 32 Charles Petzold wrote: These are binary numbers between 0 and 1, and (judging from the way we created these numbers) all ...
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I have a question about concept of monad used in Haskell programming and category theory in math. Recall in Haskell a monad consists of following components: A type constructor that defines for each ...
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### What are the implications of Homotopy Type Theory?

I've recently come across the topic of homotopy type theory and I'm interested to learn more. I have a very limited background in type theory. Can anyone tell me, in functional programming terms or ...
54 views

### Which topics of mathematics should I need to learn to be a good app developer?

I'm 29 years old. I couldn't continue my studies after grade 10 due to some financial issues and I didn't have time to practice mathematics. It's been more than 11 years since I left studies. Now I ...
211 views

### What is a list of "reasonable but undecidable" theorems?

There are some theorems that go along the lines of "all reasonable properties of <math subject> are computationally undecidable." Here are two examples: Rice's Theorem: "all ...
1 vote
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### A silly doubt on Computer Science Objects: Arrays, Lists, Strings, and Vectors, are they the same concept?

First of all I'm a Physics Student and I've been arguing with my brother concerning the usage and the fundamental meaning of a vector on Computer Science (CS). I) Vectors A vector have a axiomatic ...
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### Mathematical expression for the quantity that we are maximising in the stock buying and selling problem

Problem Statement: Say you have an array prices for which the $i^{th}$ element is the price of a given stock on day $i$. Design an algorithm to find the maximum profit. You may complete as many ...
1 vote
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### What is the difference between a fraction and a float?

I understand any fraction to be a quotient of integers which isn't 0, but after coming across the term "float" in various programming languages (such as JavaScript) I misunderstand why it is ...
1 vote
94 views

### How was the σ function chosen to extend the perceptron?

I am just reading about perceptrons in more depth, and now onto Sigmoid Neurons. Some quotes: A small change in the weights or bias of any single perceptron in the network can sometimes cause the ...
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### Usefulness of Differential Geometry

I recently came across these books: Differential Geometry and Lie Groups: A Computational Perspective Differential Geometry and Lie Groups: A Second Course Their subject matter really intrigues me, ...
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### How do you convert bits into a different alphabet?

I have forgotten how to do this. How do I figure out what the requirements are for a 128-bit string using a certain alphabet? That is to say, I want to generate a UUID (128-bit) value, using only the ...
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### Sets in Mathematics are immutable but in Computer Science sets are mutable and called "Dynamic Sets" - truth of the statement

While reading the classic text Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen et. al. I came across the following claim: Sets are as fundamental to computer science as they are to mathematics. Whereas ...
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### A general picture of formal verification in software

I'm trying to piece together a general picture of the state of formal software verification, and I'm having a good bit of trouble. For context, I come from mostly a math background. I'm quite familiar ...
1k views

### How is expected value in entropy derived?

I was self learning about entropy and came across this equation. $$H = - \sum p(x) \log p(x)$$ The equation for entropy in expected value,  H(x) = \operatorname*{\mathbb{E}}_{X \sim P}[I(x)] = -\...
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### Prove little o with just the definition

I have been searching for a while now but couldn't find anything about this exact pair of functions with the little $\mathcal{o}$ notation. Given the functions $f(n) = 2^{n}$ and $g(n) = n!$ I am ...
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### Where does the base come from in a subsequence count?

If sequence X has m symbols, then X has 2m possible subsequences. Where does the base (<...
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### Big O Tires Question? [duplicate]

My question is regarding the last paragraph of this excerpt from "Cracking the Coding Interview." (For some reason, my table is not formatting here.) What's the runtime of this code? ...
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### Why is addition in GF(2^8) the same as XOR?

I get the impression it has to do with either some quirk involved with limiting to 2^8 or that I'm misunderstanding what addition can be within the context of a finite field, but I'm not quite sure ...
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### I don't understand formula meaning of computer vision Paper

I am master degree student at Computer Science Department. I started master degree at this year. Now I'm reading two papers about computer vision. Actually before time I didn't have experience about ...
1 vote
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### How does the forget layer of an LSTM work?

Can someone explain the mathematical intuition behind the forget layer of an LSTM? So as far as I understand it, the cell state is essentially long term memory embedding (correct me if I'm wrong), ...
86 views

### How are Complex Numbers and Complex Analysis used in CS? [closed]

The world is 3D and data of it is usually (as far as I know) represented and processed with real numbers. I've seen very few cases where complex numbers are used in programming and none when it comes ...
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### Integer-array indexing (e.g. numpy.take) as function composition: where can I find more resources?

For context, one of Numpy's features is that an an array of integers can be passed as an index to an array, and this selects values at all of the specified positions, in any order with possible ...
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