Questions tagged [memory-hardware]

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Formula to see where a memory address can be depicted in cache?

I've been trying to find a formula that helps us identify where an address can be depicted in cache. I remember my professor talking about some kind of division but I can't find it in my textbook nor ...
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28 views

How do I compute the address of the next element?

I have to work on something , but I am making an error that I can not identify. Propably, it is going to sound simple to you but it's my first course on computer architecture and there is nothing in ...
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45 views

Is ROM primary memory or secondary memory?

According to this picture ROM is classified under Main Memory , but isn’t ROM a secondary storage because it’s external and non volatile ? Any clarification with reference links will be highly ...
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24 views

Number of hardware page tables and page directories kept in the MMU

How many hardware page tables (physical) and page directories are kept in the memory management unit? If a cpu has a 32 bit virtual address, the upper 10 bits are used for the page directory, the ...
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33 views

Segmented address / normal virtual address

In a cpu with segmented memory, can an address only be accessed with a segmented address, or can a normal virtual address also be used?
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How are programs split up into pages in Memory Paging?

I am a bit confused about how the logical addresses are generated in a paging memory architecture and where and when a program is split up into pages. I understand how logical addresses are translated ...
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1answer
31 views

Connection of different buses to memory

The address bus(of cpu) is connected to a digital decoder inside the memory which sets 1 pin logic high and activates the read/write operation of the memory let's say DRAM. Is the data bus(of cpu) ...
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51 views

Is it reasonable to assume modern computers can do hardware math with integers up to 2^64?

I was writing up an algorithm that involved knowing the size of integers my hardware can manage without having to resort to software implementations of math operations and the additional computational ...
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24 views

Reading process memory of computer A on computer B?

So I was wondering if there is a way of reading process memory of one device on another. So lets say a process is running on computer A, I then use some form of connection lan, pcie etc. Once the two ...
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24 views

how to calculate the speed of memory

I checked my Mac, it shows the memory is 16 GB 2400 Mhz, does it mean that the bandwidth is $ \dfrac{16\times1024}{8} \times 2400$, is there any thing wrong with that calculation, because the value ...
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1answer
47 views

Why does an inverted page table keep a chain of pages per frame when it can only store one of such pages?

I'm currently dealing with inverted page tables and how they work. If I understood correctly, an IPT is a table that maps a frame number to a PID and page number. The way this works is by having a ...
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23 views

Two Vs Dual Port RAM

Regarding the difference between Two Vs Dual Port RAM Here is what I understand: The first can read and write at the same time but can't read twice or read twice at the same time while the second can ...
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25 views

Hardware implementation of direct mapped , set associative mapped and fully associative cache

I have consulted many textbooks (Morris Mano, H.P Hayes, Hamacher, William Stallings) but could not find a standard and clear hardware implementation of each of the models of cache organization. It is ...
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Operations on row buffer in DRAM

I am trying to understand what is the hardware structure of the row buffer in the main memory. If there can be any shift operations or any other opeartions that can be made on the row buffer? Also, ...
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There should be some common piece of hardware /firmware or software among different devices, isn't it?

There should be some common piece of hardware /firmware or software among different devices, isn't it? like among PCs, PlayStation, Xbox, Android phones or feature phones from pre 2008 era etc. Is ...
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1answer
53 views

IDE and EIDE data transfer speed

Why are data transfer speeds faster with EIDE than IDE? Wouldn't it be slower with the additional conversion of logical block addressing? What did they change to make it faster?
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24 views

How does virtual memory work when it need to save data in physical memory into disk?

I'm reading a textbook which desribe VM as: a data structure stored in physical memory known as a page table that maps virtual pages to physical pages. The address translation hardware reads the page ...
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3answers
150 views

How is a program stored before compiling?

When we write code, after compilation the code will be converted to machine language and then stored in the hard disk. But before compiling the code, it is still in the high-level language. How and ...
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79 views

Is all data stored in computers stored as machine code?

I know that the most basic (and least abstract) code for programming is machine code (with binary of 0s and 1s being the typical ...
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1answer
60 views

How much space an ascii character really takes on a 64 bit word addressable memory?

I know that an ASCII character needs 1 byte of memory for storage, but if a computer uses a 64-bit word addressable memory does it mean that the character actually takes 8 bytes even when only 1 byte ...
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1answer
30 views

Is address bus size same as physical address size and is that the same as word size?

I am having some confusion between address bus size, physical address size and word size however (I do understand that unit of memory access is word and when word size is one byte then it's known as ...
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23 views

What bus DIMM (RAM module) uses?

I know there are different types of BUS like PCI, SCSI, ISA etc. What specific type of bus (for address bus and data bus) do a DIMM module use ?
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49 views

How does computer memory store the file name?

I have this doubt for long time. When i save a notepad file, it takes the memory for the information in the file. let's say, I type 'ABC' in notepad and saved the filename as stack, it shows that the ...
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1answer
33 views

Optimal encoding scheme for semi-rewritable memory?

Let's define a "semi-rewritable" memory device as having the following properties: The initial blank media is initialised with all zeroes. When writing to the media, individual zeroes can ...
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159 views

Hard Drive Seek Time using FIFO, SSF, SCAN

A hard disk spins at 6000 rpm (revolutions per minute), and it takes 100 μs (on average) for the head to traverse one track. Consider the following sequence of disk track requests: 27, 129, 110, 186, ...
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Size of the data bus connecting CPU cache and RAM?

I'm reading about CPU caches and I read that typically, cache line sizes start from 32 bytes. Since memory is slower than CPU caches therefore data is frequently loaded from the RAM into the cache and ...
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1answer
93 views

Would it be possible for a new technology to make RAM obsolete?

If a new technology is invented for storage devices, which is the same as or speeder than RAM (bandwidth&lanecy), is it possible to make RAM obsolete and consider the storage device as the main ...
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Why is the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) referred to as an 8-bit system, rather than a 1-byte system?

As far as I've understood it, referring to this system as an 8-bit system points out that one can access 8 bits of data in one instruction. While I understand that we're not saving vast amounts of ...
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How does software interact with the cpu in the fetch execute cycle?

As the question suggests, is there any interaction or relationships between any sort of software and the cpu during the fetch-execute cycle?
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1answer
533 views

Finding number of memory locations in chip

I was solving some old MCQs and found this question: A RAM chip has 7 address lines, 8 data lines and 2 chip select lines. Then the number of memory locations is _____. (A) $2^{12}$ (B) $2^{10}$ (C) $...
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3answers
345 views

The maximum decimal integer that can be stored in memory of 8-bit word processor computer?

Actually i am preparing for an exam and in the last year exam this que. was been asked. i.e The maximum decimal integer number that can be stored in memory of 8-bit word processor computer ? a)...
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1answer
873 views

Why is memory one dimensional?

Addresses in system programming languages like C are one dimensional (i.e. one number). This forces the programmer to make a decision whether matrices are stored "row major" or "column major" causing ...
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1answer
93 views

How does the hardware of a while loop work?

I know get how logical operators for if logic gates work, but I am trying to understand how while loops fit into that picture. I realize that this question is a bit vague. It all started because I was ...
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154 views

What other instructions are stored in the ROM?

Apart from the start-up instructions, what other programs are stored in the ROM?
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Names of circuits that comprise memory

I just had a quick question about memory, and I was looking to get some insight. I'm a student, and one of our homework questions was "name two circuits aside from memory cells that RAM must contain ...
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116 views

Can a 32-bit processor work with a 64-bit size word?

In a 32-bit byte addressable memory system, each "row" has 4 bytes and each byte has a 32-bit address. My question is: can I read and/or write word of length 64 bits from/to memory? In other terms, ...
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78 views

How memory controller reads from RAM with O(1) time complexity?

I am trying to understand how a RAM memory controller gets data with instant access while reading through the memory. Let's say initially, ram gets the data at address 0 and then to get the data at ...
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1answer
36 views

How does a dual core microprocessors run so many programs?

I have a laptop with Intel dual core and it runs, the OS windows, and many application from Opera, age of empires, word, excel etc open at once just fine. If it only has 2 cores, how can so many ...
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101 views

Distinction between paging and segmentation?

In my operating systems textbook, there is a paragraph which states: As for the contents of each PTE, we have a number of different bits in there worth understanding at some level. A valid bit is ...
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1answer
150 views

Who invented the adder, full-adder, half-adder?

I didn't find, in the digital design books, who invented the adders. The same person invented the half-adder and the full-adder? What's the oldest publication on digital arithmetic design?
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L1 Cache Missing Timing Attack

I'm trying to understand Section 3: L1 Cache Missing in the paper Cache Missing for Fun and Profit. I'm stuck on trying to figure out how the covert channel is ...
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1answer
144 views

Is it reasonable to model row buffers in DRAM corresponding to the same bank ID as one big row buffer?

I'm creating a simple row buffer simulator to go along with a simple cache simulator in order to count hits and misses in the row buffer. Whenever a cache block isn't in the cache I want to go look ...
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1answer
49 views

Slowdown when accessing data at page boundaries?

Hi I have a program which accesses memory words that are located X bytes apart in virtual address space. For instance, ...
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1answer
239 views

Why is 2^32 in a 32-bit system = 4GiB and not 4Gib?

I was watching this video 32-Bit vs 64-Bit - The Advantage and at 1:19 (timestamp) the narrator mentioned the 4GB memory allocation for the 32-bit system. I later found out it should've been 4GiB but ...
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157 views

Without Rare Metals [closed]

One often sees assertions that these are "necessary" for modern military and consumer computing applications. I presume that without these rare metals, the devices could be manufactured, but would be ...
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657 views

Is CPU Registers part of Primary Memory?

A friend of mine appeared in an exam recently, and one of the question asked was regarding CPU Registers, which has two points: (a) CPU Registers are part of Primary Memory (b) They are volatile And ...
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76 views

How does the memory of a 64bit and 32bit processor work

In this article, the author states that a 64bit processor can theoretically reference 2^64 bytes of memory. What does he mean by this statement, or rather the word, reference? Also, I visualize the ...
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2k views

Why do we still use a Von Neumann Architecture in modern computers?

The Von Neumann architecture was first created in the mid 40s for use in a computing system known as ENIAC for research into the feasibility of thermonuclear weapons. To this day the Von Neumann ...
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282 views

Address bus and memory

If I have an address bus of 64K, i.e. it can access 64*1024 or 65536 locations, should I also have a memory chip with 65536 locations in it? What I'm trying to ask is that do all the 65536 locations ...
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279 views

Address and data bus

When people use the word "bidirectional" while describing buses, what are the two "directions" that are being talked about? Also, why is the address bus unidirectional, as opposed to the data bus? ...