Questions tagged [model-checking]

Model checking refers to the following problem: given a model of a system, test automatically whether this model meets a given specification.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
11
votes
1answer
147 views

Programming language semantics prototyping tool

Is there any tool for prototyping a programming language semantics and type system and that also allows for some sort of model checking of standard properties, like type soundness? I'm asking this, ...
8
votes
2answers
288 views

What exactly is Symbolic Model Checking?

I know that Symbolic Model Checking is state space traversal based on representations of states sets and transition relations as formulas like in CTL using models like Kripke Model. I know the theory. ...
8
votes
1answer
177 views

Verify correctness of quantifier elimination, using SAT

Let $x=(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ and $y=(y_1,\dots,y_n)$ be $n$-vectors of boolean variables. I have a boolean predicate $Q(x,y)$ on $x,y$. I give my friend Priscilla $Q(x,y)$. In response, she gives me $P(...
7
votes
4answers
932 views

How can I decide manually whether two CTL formulae are equivalent?

Assume I have two formulae $\Phi$ and $\Psi$ (over the same set of atomic propositions $AP$) in CTL. We have that $\Phi \equiv \Psi$ iff $Sat_{TS}(\Phi) = Sat_{TS}(\Psi)$ for all transition systems $...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Product of a Transition System and a Finite Automaton

Dealing with a question that asks me to compute the product of the following transition system and finite automaton. Compute the product between the transition system TS and the finite-word automaton ...
6
votes
1answer
168 views

Looking for a book that derives and constructs a model checking application

I am teaching myself program verification and am currently learning proof assistants. I have the book Handbook of Practical Logic and Automated Reasoning which gives the proofs necessary for the ...
6
votes
1answer
113 views

Why are there two different `until` ($\cup$) semantics in Timed Computation Tree Logic?

Background: In the book of Principles of Model Checking (Christel Baier and Joost-Peter Katoen, MIT Press, 2007), Section 9.2, page 701, the semantics of the until modality is defined over some time-...
5
votes
1answer
137 views

The importance of the language semantics for code generation and frameworks for code generation in model-driven development

I am implementing worflow where the code in industrial programming languages (JavaScript and Java) should be generated from the formal (formally verified) expressions (from ontologies as objects and ...
5
votes
0answers
133 views

Introduction to bounded model checking that describes model generation

Most of the tutorials I have found on model checking and bounded model checking start with, the model is given as a Kripke Structure M = (S,I,T,L) where S is a set of states, I is a set of initial ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

Is model checking PSpace-hard *in formula size*?

Sistla/Clarke proved [SC82] that the LTL model-checking problem is PSpace-complete. Sometimes people write that this problem is "PSpace-hard in $|\phi|$" (e.g. [LP85]). What does this mean formally? ...
4
votes
1answer
215 views

How does TLC check liveness properties?

The paper "Model Checking TLA+ Specifications" published in 1999 explained how TLC (Temporal Logic Checker) checks safety properties written in TLA+ developed by Lamport. At that time, TLC did not yet ...
4
votes
1answer
139 views

Witness for the $EU(\phi_1,\phi_2)$ using BDDs

I wanted ask if you know an algorithm to find the witness for $EU(\phi_1,\phi_2)$ (CTL formula "Exist Until") using BDDs (Binary Decision Diagram). In pratice you should use the fixed point for ...
4
votes
1answer
52 views

Are two CCS processes equivalent with respect to weak bisimilarity if and only if they satisfy exactly the same set of HML formulas?

I was skimming this recent paper and I was struck by the following statement: two processes are equivalent with respect to weak bisimilarity if and only if they satisfy exactly the same set of HML ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

How the $EX(f)$ is evaluated in symbolic model checking?

I was reading the symbolic model checking, So there it has mentioned that we can represent the set of states and transition relations of any transition system with the help of ROBDDs. I was trying to ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

CTL* query evaluation order

I'm currently trying to evaluate a CTL* expression and am not sure how to stepwisely evaluate the queries. For example I have EFG p. This means something like 'there is a path where eventually there ...
3
votes
1answer
592 views

Modelling a basic sequential circuit as a transition system?

I'm going through Dr Joost-Pieter Katoen's slides and stumbled upon this: For some reason I can't quite make out how the transition system relates to the sequential circuit. If I had a question for ...
3
votes
1answer
158 views

Description and semantics of program graphs

I'm working on a question which gives me a program graph and tells me to give a mathematical description of it. I'm aware that a program graph PG is a tuple $(Loc, Act, Effect, \rightarrow, Loc_0, ...
3
votes
1answer
225 views

Time to construct a GNBA for LTL formula

I have a problem with the proof for constructing a GNBA (generalized nondeterministic Büchi automaton) for a LTL formula: Theorem: For any LTL formula $\varphi$ there exists a GNBA $G_{\varphi}$ ...
3
votes
0answers
92 views

Spot the formalism (some kind of process logic)

Consider the following specification technique. A specification consists of a finite set of triples $\langle C, A, C' \rangle$, where $A$ is the name of an action and $C, C'$ are conditions, that is, ...
2
votes
1answer
380 views

Transition systems that satisfy LTL but not CTL, and vice versa

I am learning about temporal logic and model checking systems. One conceptual exercise that I am struggling with is how to create a transition system which satisfies only one of two given properties, ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

How do you correctly write this sentence as a CTL formula?

Sentence: From every reachable state it is possible to reach a state where $p$ is true. How do you write this sentence as a CTL formula? So far I only dealt with CTL syntax and trees but maybe it ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

How to express the existence of winning strategy of the starter of a game in temporal logic?

Consider a two-player game. A winning strategy of a player is a strategy following which the player can always beat his opponent, no matter how his opponent responds. A game can be unfolded to a ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

What's the definition of ACTL?

I have been looking for the definition of ACTL, but Google has given me very little to go with. So far, I know ACTL is another form of CTL model checking, and CTL includes the following operators: ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What is the difference between a Transition System and a Program Graph? (model checking) [closed]

As the above question says. I'm wondering if a transition system is the same as a program graph or they are two different things? Thank you.
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Negation of the semantics of the Until operator in LTL

I have been looking at the Until operator and the release operator and when introduced to the release operator it was suggested that it is equivalent to: $\phi R \psi \equiv \neg(\neg\phi U \neg \psi)...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Acceptance conditions when translating LTL to Büchi automaton?

As an exercise in better understanding, I have been implementing the LTL to Generalized Büchi Automaton translation algorithm of Gerth, et al. (which is also discussed in Clarke, et al., Model ...
2
votes
1answer
232 views

Modeling a sequential circuit as a transition system

I was asked to model the following sequential circuits C1, C2 as transition systems (i.e. identify the output y function and register functions r1, r2, r3) For C2 there appears to be not input x and ...
2
votes
1answer
347 views

LTL properties in bounded model checking via assertions

Is there a way to check LTL properties in a bounded model checker? As an example, consider a liveness property ($G F p$ - always eventually $p$)? Suppose we have the following trivial program ...
2
votes
1answer
206 views

What's a side-effect free expression in Timed Automata?

I'm trying to get myself more familiar with Timed Automata theory. At some point I came across the expression "side-effect free" like in the following: A guard is a side-effect free expression that ...
2
votes
1answer
168 views

SPIN / Promela Verification [closed]

I have this code here which performs the 'leader election' among a specified number of processes. In Promela, it is written as: ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How to prove a LTL formula correct in a specific model?

I have been learning Verification by model checking recently and I get the following question: $Whether\ the\ LTL\ formula\ M, q_3\ \models (X\ \lnot a) \rightarrow (F\ G\ \lnot a)\ is\ established\ ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

What exactly state is in Model Checking

So I finally realized the difference between transition systems and automata, and now am closer to understanding Model Checking. One of the last pieces is understanding what exactly "state" is in ...
2
votes
1answer
155 views

Least fix point of CTL formula

In the book Logic in Computer Science on page 244, there is a proof that $[[E(\phi U\psi)]]$ is the least fixed point of $G(X)=[[\psi]] \cup ([[\phi]]\cap\mathop{\textrm{pre}}_\exists(X))$. I don't ...
2
votes
1answer
215 views

Explanation of the Gelfond Lifschitz reduct

Can someone explain with a hands on example how the Gelfond Lifschitz reduct works in order to check stable model semantics? edit a simple example here - at least as far as I understand the thing. ...
2
votes
1answer
437 views

The Interleaved Transition System for 2 Independent and Concurrent Transition Systems

This question is about Model Checking for Software Formal Verification How do you model the joint behavior of 2 independent and concurrent transition systems? Specifically, given the two independent ...
2
votes
0answers
146 views

Equivalence preserving operator from CTL* to LTL

The question is about an operator that transforms any CTL* formula ${\psi}$ into a (not necessarily equivalent) LTL formula ${A\psi^d}$, where $d$ means syntactically removing all $A,E$ quantifiers ...
2
votes
0answers
49 views

Why do we have free variables in mu-calculus?

I'm reading the Model Chekcing book of E. M. Clarke and in the chapter about µ-calculus there is an example formula $$ f = \mu Z. ((q \mathrel{\mathrm{AND}} Y) \mathrel{\mathrm{OR}} \langle a \rangle ...
2
votes
0answers
83 views

Is there any open-source tools for verifying TCTL formulae over timed automata can be imported into my project?

In my project, there is one important step to automatically verify a timed automata with TCTL formulae. I briefly surveyed the tool UPPAAL that provides a GUI to construct a timed automata and to ...
2
votes
0answers
347 views

Example of execution fragment of multi-process transition system

Here is a simple transition system of beverage vending machine: The exemplary execution fragments can look like this: Now, imagine we have multi-process TS where processes are identical and ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

How to prove a side effect in a function

I asked a question earlier about Saving to the Database, which was very general and about the requirements for a proof when you go through many layers of non-verified systems such as the network and ...
1
vote
2answers
406 views

Some slight confusion with the UNTIL operator in CTL (e.g. a U b)

I've sketched a very small transition system in paint that I'll use as an example. I want to see if $A(aUb)$ holds for this transition system. From my understanding, this CTL formula is asking if ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

(Generally) How to specify asynchronous action with side effects using logic equations

Say you have this function call sequence: function all() { fn1() fn2() fn3() } And say that fn2 was asynchronous and ...
1
vote
1answer
107 views

An algorithm to compute a set of states that satisfy a specific CTL formula

Working through a past exam question and I'm unsure where to start or what form they want the answer in: Define an algorithm that receives as input a finite transition system TS defined over the set ...
1
vote
1answer
453 views

Computation tree logic and Kripke structures

Specifications in Kripke structures are verified by Computation tree logic (CTL). However, refering to this Wikipedia article the CTL-operators are relative to a current state. So, when we want to ...
1
vote
2answers
97 views

Buchi automata in formal software verification

As I am studying the application of Buchi automata in formal software verification, I am interested in the computational complexity (or links to papers) for the algorithms used to solve the problem in ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

How to define the Atomic Propositions in Model Checking

The atomic propositions in Symbolic Model Checking form the state in the state-transition graph (the model $\mathcal{M}$ in Model Checking). The other part of Model Checking is the specification, ...
1
vote
1answer
157 views

How to verify a property about a certain order of events in TCTL / UPPAAL?

I'd like to check if a certain order of events happens if another property holds true using UPPAAL and TCTL. ...
1
vote
1answer
150 views

Find equivalent LTL formula, without Y (Yesterday) operator. How can I handle first state?

The task is to find an equivalent LTL formula for $G(a \Rightarrow Yb)$, which doesn't contain the Y operator. My idea is to search for invalid path patterns with 2 $a$'s in a row, e.g. bbbbaab. ...
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Model Checking: hardware vs software

In short: What is the basic difference that allows model checking for hardware to be "easily" solvable, but makes it undecidable for software? I guess it has to boil down to the difference between ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Validity of CTL formula $s_0 \models EG\ AF\ p$ in given model

I have been learning Verification by model checking recently and I get the following question: Is the CTL formula $s_{0} \models EG\ AF\ p$ valid in the following model? I think it is ...