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Questions tagged [model-checking]

Model checking refers to the following problem: given a model of a system, test automatically whether this model meets a given specification.

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Review of Formal Verification and How to Apply it to Greenfield Project [duplicate]

Last year I looked heavily into Formal Verification, such as automated theorem proving, model checking, type systems, symbolic evaluation, and many others. I probably spent a few weeks or maybe months ...
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What goes into proving two complicated programs are equivalent?

Say I wanted to prove that two programs were equivalent (either rigorously if possible, or informally if not). More specifically, say I have something relatively complex such as an HTTP server ...
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Proving that a property is k-inductive with an SMT solver (parametric resettable counter)

I'm following the slides at https://homepage.cs.uiowa.edu/~tinelli/talks/FT-11.pdf where Tinelli explains how k-induction works in the context of SMT based model checking. A parametric and resettable ...
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Modeling a set of probabilistic concurrent processes

I'm looking into discrete-time Markov chains (DTMCs) for use in analyzing a probabilistic consensus protocol. One basic thing I haven't been able to figure out is how to model a set of independent ...
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Algorithm for computing $Pr[s \vDash C \bigcup^{\geq n} B]$ for probabilistic verification

I'm having some difficulty trying to come up with an algorithm for computing $Pr[s \vDash C ~\bigcup^{\geq n} B]$ given a finite Markov chain where $S$ is the set of states, $s \in S$, $B,C \subseteq ...
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Calculating probability of reaching state in DTMC

Consider a highly-connected graph of states & transitions where each transition is marked with a weight (representing probability of occurring) and the graph satisfies the Discrete Time Markov ...
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How are safety/liveness languages defined on the set of finite or infinite words? [closed]

Let $Σ$ be an alphabet (e.g., the powerset of atomic propositions coming from some Kripke structure, though such details are irrelevant here). For infinite words, a language $P\subseteq Σ^ω$ is ...
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Safety property vs Liveness property

If i take a safety property $SP$ and a liveness property $LP$, is it true that the result of their intersection is a safety property (and not a liveness property) ? Why ? Thanks
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Definition of liveness property in model checking

A property $P$ is simply a set of sequences of states and a certain program is characterized by its set of sequences of states, let's call it $T$. A program is compliant to a specific property P if $T\...
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Is model checking PSpace-hard *in formula size*?

Sistla/Clarke proved [SC82] that the LTL model-checking problem is PSpace-complete. Sometimes people write that this problem is "PSpace-hard in $|\phi|$" (e.g. [LP85]). What does this mean formally? ...
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Are two CCS processes equivalent with respect to weak bisimilarity if and only if they satisfy exactly the same set of HML formulas?

I was skimming this recent paper and I was struck by the following statement: two processes are equivalent with respect to weak bisimilarity if and only if they satisfy exactly the same set of HML ...
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Negation of the semantics of the Until operator in LTL

I have been looking at the Until operator and the release operator and when introduced to the release operator it was suggested that it is equivalent to: $\phi R \psi \equiv \neg(\neg\phi U \neg \psi)...
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(Generally) How to specify asynchronous action with side effects using logic equations

Say you have this function call sequence: function all() { fn1() fn2() fn3() } And say that fn2 was asynchronous and ...
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Buchi automata in formal software verification

As I am studying the application of Buchi automata in formal software verification, I am interested in the computational complexity (or links to papers) for the algorithms used to solve the problem in ...
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Model Checking CTL* algorithm

Currently I'm trying to understand the CTL* model checking algorithm from this book. The basic idea is clear to that we can use the LTL algorithm to whenever we have a subformular $E\phi$ or $A\phi$ ...
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Validity of CTL formula $s_0 \models EG\ AF\ p$ in given model

I have been learning Verification by model checking recently and I get the following question: Is the CTL formula $s_{0} \models EG\ AF\ p$ valid in the following model? I think it is ...
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How to prove a LTL formula correct in a specific model?

I have been learning Verification by model checking recently and I get the following question: $Whether\ the\ LTL\ formula\ M, q_3\ \models (X\ \lnot a) \rightarrow (F\ G\ \lnot a)\ is\ established\ ...
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How do you correctly write this sentence as a CTL formula?

Sentence: From every reachable state it is possible to reach a state where $p$ is true. How do you write this sentence as a CTL formula? So far I only dealt with CTL syntax and trees but maybe it ...
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How to express the existence of winning strategy of the starter of a game in temporal logic?

Consider a two-player game. A winning strategy of a player is a strategy following which the player can always beat his opponent, no matter how his opponent responds. A game can be unfolded to a ...
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How to collect all states of a behavior in TLA+?

Description of the problem: I am modeling checking a distributed protocol against a global property with TLA+ developed by Leslie Lamport. The global property is defined on all states of a behavior (...
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How Model Checking works with User Interaction

In order to understand how to apply Model Checking, I am wondering how to apply it to a pseudo-realistic async program. Say I have the following pseudocode: ...
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How to define the Atomic Propositions in Model Checking

The atomic propositions in Symbolic Model Checking form the state in the state-transition graph (the model $\mathcal{M}$ in Model Checking). The other part of Model Checking is the specification, ...
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What exactly state is in Model Checking

So I finally realized the difference between transition systems and automata, and now am closer to understanding Model Checking. One of the last pieces is understanding what exactly "state" is in ...
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Least fix point of CTL formula

In the book Logic in Computer Science on page 244, there is a proof that $[[E(\phi U\psi)]]$ is the least fixed point of $G(X)=[[\psi]] \cup ([[\phi]]\cap\mathop{\textrm{pre}}_\exists(X))$. I don't ...
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How does TLC check liveness properties?

The paper "Model Checking TLA+ Specifications" published in 1999 explained how TLC (Temporal Logic Checker) checks safety properties written in TLA+ developed by Lamport. At that time, TLC did not yet ...
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CTL satisfied by Kripke Structure

given a Kripke Structure I want to check if a CTL formula is satisfied or not. the CTL is: $$ AG(c \vee AX\neg E((a\vee b)Uc)) $$ I have read that it is better to write to CTL in terms of $\wedge $ ...
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How to Construct Kripke Structure States from Nested Functions

Say I have these defined functions: ...
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Understanding a Single Step in the Model Checking Algorithm

This answer explains roughly how to convert a nested boolean function into a Binary Decision Diagram (BDD). This question is about how to structure the states for the BDD. Now in this question I am ...
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Equivalence preserving operator from CTL* to LTL

The question is about an operator that transforms any CTL* formula ${\psi}$ into a (not necessarily equivalent) LTL formula ${A\psi^d}$, where $d$ means syntactically removing all $A,E$ quantifiers ...
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How to prove a side effect in a function

I asked a question earlier about Saving to the Database, which was very general and about the requirements for a proof when you go through many layers of non-verified systems such as the network and ...
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What the State is, and Where it comes from, when Generating Reachability Graphs

For Timed Automata, I found Figure 1 below. For Coloured Petri Nets I found Figure 2. Both are for "Reachability Graph Construction". However, they don't describe where they got the states from (...
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Acceptance conditions when translating LTL to Büchi automaton?

As an exercise in better understanding, I have been implementing the LTL to Generalized Büchi Automaton translation algorithm of Gerth, et al. (which is also discussed in Clarke, et al., Model ...
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Why do we have free variables in mu-calculus?

I'm reading the Model Chekcing book of E. M. Clarke and in the chapter about µ-calculus there is an example formula $$ f = \mu Z. ((q \mathrel{\mathrm{AND}} Y) \mathrel{\mathrm{OR}} \langle a \rangle ...
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Explanation of the Gelfond Lifschitz reduct

Can someone explain with a hands on example how the Gelfond Lifschitz reduct works in order to check stable model semantics? edit a simple example here - at least as far as I understand the thing. ...
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Given two formulae E[G F p] (which is CTL*) and EG EF p ( which is a CTL) with a Model prove that they are not equivalent

I am trying to prove they are not equivalent , a model which satisfies the fist one but not the second since I think EG EF p is stronger than E[GF p],any leads would be helpful. Thanks.
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Finding Models for a sequent

I am trying to generate models for the following sequent. $$\exists x \exists y \forall z (z = x \lor z = y)$$ What I have come up with is this. $$A= \{0,1\}$$ So in this model, for all the values ...
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LTL to GBA versus LTL to BA

Let's assume that I have an LTL formula and I want to convert it to a Buchi automaton. For which fragment of LTL, GBA is more succinct and for which fragment BA has the same size as GBA.
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Importance of Needham–Schroeder Protocol

I'm working on a paper about model checking on cryptographic protocols and many of the papers I have read, base their approaches in the Needham-Schroeder protocol. I undestand this was one of the ...
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Calculate expected values of “Craps Game” with the help of Prism Model Checker

I have modelled the craps game (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Craps#Rules_of_play) as a dtmc with the prism model checker: ...
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CTL* query evaluation order

I'm currently trying to evaluate a CTL* expression and am not sure how to stepwisely evaluate the queries. For example I have EFG p. This means something like 'there is a path where eventually there ...
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How the $EX(f)$ is evaluated in symbolic model checking?

I was reading the symbolic model checking, So there it has mentioned that we can represent the set of states and transition relations of any transition system with the help of ROBDDs. I was trying to ...
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Programming language semantics prototyping tool

Is there any tool for prototyping a programming language semantics and type system and that also allows for some sort of model checking of standard properties, like type soundness? I'm asking this, ...
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Modeling a sequential circuit as a transition system

I was asked to model the following sequential circuits C1, C2 as transition systems (i.e. identify the output y function and register functions r1, r2, r3) For C2 there appears to be not input x and ...
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generic technique to build LTL/CTL formula that satisfy specific inputs to a model

I have an automaton, for example the below automaton and would like to generate a single formula (LTL or CTL, or some other representation) that satisfy exactly the traces provided. e.g., $t_1 = i^*...
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How to verify a property about a certain order of events in TCTL / UPPAAL?

I'd like to check if a certain order of events happens if another property holds true using UPPAAL and TCTL. ...
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Can QBF encode #QBF?

In another question Initializing non-deterministic variables in QBF, I was interested about translating assertion-based pseudocode to QBF in order to have an exponentially more compact encoding ...
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Initializing non-deterministic variables in QBF

I'm trying to translate the following pseudocode to QBF. The integers are encoded as simple fixed-width bitvectors, and the entire procedure runs in polynomial space ensuring QBF has enough ...
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What's the definition of ACTL?

I have been looking for the definition of ACTL, but Google has given me very little to go with. So far, I know ACTL is another form of CTL model checking, and CTL includes the following operators: ...
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How to prove LTL-formulas true for all paths?

I'm quoting a question from my homework which I don't understand its wording. Also, I'm not looking for an answer for my problem, I just want to be pointed at some articles/tutorials/reading/tips to ...
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The importance of the language semantics for code generation and frameworks for code generation in model-driven development

I am implementing worflow where the code in industrial programming languages (JavaScript and Java) should be generated from the formal (formally verified) expressions (from ontologies as objects and ...