Questions tagged [natural-language-processing]

Natural language processing (NLP)

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269 views

Has someone seen this structure before?

I am working 1 with a certain structure, and I wonder if someone has seen it before. I am no mathematician, so all I can say is that I will do my best to describe this structure. It is actually very ...
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2answers
3k views

What are the definitions of syntax and semantics?

For a formal language $L \subseteq \Sigma^*$ over an alphabet $\Sigma$. From https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Definition:Syntax The syntax of a formal language is its structure, and is specified by a ...
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4answers
2k views

Optimal algorithm for finding all ngrams from a pre-defined set in a text

I'm thinking about the optimal algorithm for the following problem: Input data: a text, say it's an article about 5-50 pages. a set of ngrams (ngram strings, n>2), of arbitrary length, could be more ...
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3answers
669 views

Does programming language detection need more input than natural language detection?

I wonder which one of the two needs a larger input to achieve a decent accuracy: programming language detection or natural language detection? More details: Definition of Language detection: In ...
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4answers
1k views

What aspects of linguistics are necessary or good for natural language processing? [closed]

What aspects of linguistics are necessary or good to know for natural language processing? What references do you recommend for studying those aspects? Thanks!
2
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1answer
71 views

What is the Best and easiest way to create a Classifer for Sentiment Analysis [closed]

Sentiment analysis using Machine Learning is a hot topic. In the present situation when a person doesn't have a problem in having the training data set then which way should we create the classifier ...
2
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2answers
5k views

Computing probability of sentence using N-grams

I have implemented N-grams by constructing a tree (or a trie, technically) that stores frequencies of each N-gram. Each path in the tree represents an N-gram and its frequency: the path consists of N ...
2
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1answer
37 views

How is wordnet curated?

I use Princeton's WordNet in NLP applications. I always read that it is "human-curated." But how is it curated? Who decides that words belong in a synset? How does the process work? Wikipedia does not ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Bible Verse division

I'm working on a project compiling various versions of the Bible into a dataset. For the most part versions separate verses discreetly. In some versions, however, verses are combined. Instead of verse ...
2
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1answer
145 views

Similar news detection

How do top news portals detect similar news? For example https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51431087, if you go to this webpage, you can see the "More on this story" section at the bottom of ...
2
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1answer
120 views

How to represent symbolic knowledge using real numbers - theory about neural networks and natural/analog computing?

One can define the semantics of one definite word using the references to real world entities, relationships with the other words and other concepts and represent all this knowledge about this one ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Subsampling of Frequent Words in Word2Vec

I am reading through the following paper: https://papers.nips.cc/paper/5021-distributed-representations-of-words-and-phrases-and-their-compositionality.pdf Under section 2.3 on page 4 the authors ...
2
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1answer
177 views

Scientific soundness of computer science papers [closed]

First of all, this question relates to an issue that affects several areas of science, but since StackExchange doesn't have a meta science section I'll make it specific to computer science, which is ...
2
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1answer
78 views

Most frequently tools or programming language for implementation text processing and nlp algorithms in academic papers and journals [closed]

I want to prototype and try some idea (some algorithm) in the field of text processing and nlp and if the results was good I want to publish some paper or journal article about that. I am familiar ...
2
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1answer
76 views

Looking for a paper comparing NLP methods with Data Mining techniques

I've recently attended a conference, where one of the participants mentioned a recent paper published by a Google employee, which showed that using data mining techniques in application to NLP might ...
2
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1answer
247 views

Natural Language Parser that can handle syntactic and lexical errors

I have some background in natural language processing and I know that all parsers (top down or bottom up, or mix), at least when I studied just about a few years ago, cannot handle any error. A small ...
2
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1answer
109 views

Solving the part-of-speech tagging problem with HMM

There is a famous part-of-speech tagging problem in Natural Language Processing. The popular solution is to use Hidden Markov Models. So that, given the sentence $x_1 \dots x_n$ we want to find the ...
2
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2answers
145 views

Hidden Markov Model in Tagging Problem

I try to understand the details regarding using Hidden Markov Model in Tagging Problem. The best concise description that I found is the Course notes by Michal Collins. The goal is to find a ...
2
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1answer
25 views

Marginalise edge weights on graph

I have a directed acyclic graph with a score on each edge. The score of a path is defined to be the sum of the scores on the edges along this path. The probability of a path is the score of such a ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Semantic natural language processing - from texts to logical expressions? Universal knowledge base?

My question is - is there a semantic natural language processing that tries to understand the meaning of the texts and that tries to derive the consequences of the understood meaning? Is there a ...
2
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1answer
110 views

Question about bigram model

I am trying to build a bigram letter model. I obtain a sequence of words in a form of ['hello','I','am','Johnny']. Firstly, I lower all the words to obtain : ['hello','i','am','johnny']. I am ...
2
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1answer
431 views

Language grammar correction with supervised learning

I want to work on automatic grammar correction using machine learning (possibly using recurrent or deep neural networks). The algorithm will be supplied with both corrected and initial documents for ...
2
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1answer
63 views

How do IR researchers evaluate the ranks of documents?

I am developing a new IR system in a specialized context. I understand that a traditional IR system (like a search engine) should rank documents in terms of their relevance for a query. The most ...
2
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2answers
591 views

Generative Machine Learning algorithms on tree structure

I'm looking into PCFG sentence grammar dependency structure parsing using StanfordNLP PCFG parser. It generates tree structures represented as a string like this: ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Trying to tag parts of a word and keep track of any changes that happen to those parts

I'm a researcher working with a language that has gone through phonological changes through time. I would like to tag parts of a word (i.e. prefix, stem, suffix) and then apply those phonological ...
2
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1answer
80 views

Using interval graphs to find authorship disputes

The first chapter of the book "Graphs and their uses" by Oystein Ore says that interval graphs can be used to resolve authorship disputes, but I couldn't find any details. How does this work? What ...
2
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1answer
328 views

Automatic speech correction

When we are trying to learn a new language without any help from native speakers, the first thing we need is something/someone to correct our grammatical mistakes/improper word selection. So is there ...
2
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1answer
122 views

Analyzing rules of articles in languages

I'm interested in finding a solution for the following problem: problem space: any language that has more than 1 article let's take German language as example. So the articles in German are "der", "...
2
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0answers
21 views

Generating an “approximate” grammar

This is my first time posting here, so I hope I'm on topic. I have a table of natural-language data of the form ...
2
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0answers
43 views

Question about word embeddings in a specific language model - GPT-2

How were the GPT-2 token embeddings constructed? The authors mention that they used Byte Pair Encoding to construct their vocabulary. But BPE is a compression algorithm that returns a list of ...
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0answers
15 views

Are there any neural NLG systems which don't generate in left-to-right order?

For a while, all classification tasks in natural language processing were based on simple RNN's, which operate in a very word-by-word order. Adding gating mechanisms increased ability to "look back", ...
2
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0answers
16 views

How does the Earley parser accept the input string as syntactically correct?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earley_parser An input string of length $n$ is syntactically correct if at least one $(S \rightarrow X_1 ... X_m • 0)$ is in $E_n$. Why is this the case ? The part ...
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0answers
55 views

Automatic learning/discovery of logics

Are there efforts to automatically discover new logics? Logics are simple structures - they have formal language, deduction rules, semantics and certain properties that are proved or discarded for ...
2
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0answers
54 views

Semantic/DRT methods for conversational agents / chatbots / dialogue systems - reference request?

The wiki pages about chabots mention that statistical methods, keyword search and precompiled answers are used for the chatbots. But I feel that there should exist different - semantical approach for ...
2
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0answers
23 views

Where to cut a category tree

Since I don't have CS background I will most probably ask this question the wrong way. I need to choose a node from a tree, where I include all beneath this node leafs in a validation. I have a data ...
2
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0answers
77 views

How to determine agreement between two sentences?

A common Natural Language Processing (NLP) task is to determine semantic similarity between two sentences. Has the question of agreement/disagreement between two sentences been covered in NLP or other ...
2
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0answers
22 views

Standard training and test corpuses for POS tagging

I'm wondering if there is a standard corpus that people use to evaluate their part-of-speech taggers. I am implementing my own tagger, and would like a meaningful way to measure its performance, ...
2
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0answers
54 views

How to store linguistic data?

I'm both interested in practical and theoretical aspects of the problem. How do you store linguistic data. Suppose you have stemmed, parsed, tagged and, perhaps even did some preliminary analysis, ...
2
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0answers
60 views

What are recent, high-quality surveys on NLP topics?

In particular POS tagging, dependency and constituent parsing. This is not really my field of study but I would really like to be able to make informed claims on what precisions current top systems ...
2
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0answers
52 views

Two classes of documents. Find weighted relations between them

I have an NLP problem and a potential solution, but I’m a bit green here, so I’m looking for some validation or alternative suggestions. Background I have two types of documents: one is a set of ...
2
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0answers
20 views

What are ways that you might analyze relations extracted from text [closed]

In the coursera NLP course, Dan Jurofsky says you might want to extract relations from text to serve as input to other algorithms. What are examples of ways that researchers have used or might use ...
2
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0answers
186 views

The grammar of the GeoQuery language

GeoQuery is a dataset used for benchmarking semantic parsers. It contains 880 queries about USA geography. The queries are in Prolog format, for example: answer(A,longest(A,(river(A),traverse(A,B),...
1
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1answer
118 views

How to transform lambda function to multi-argument lambda function and how to rewrite or approximate terms?

I am trying to do the formal semantics (Montague grammar, abstract categorial grammar) of natural language and encode the sentence John is boss. The type system has ...
1
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1answer
51 views

How to detect plurals in English sentences?

I'm wondering how to detect English plurals in natural language sentences. Such as: fish computers houses ... Using Earley parsing I'm able to get to the s or no-s, but I have difficulties in ...
1
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1answer
360 views

How does SpaCy make its dependency tree?

I discovered that SpaCy had the ability to make dependency trees. For instance given a question “To whom did the Virgin Mary allegedly appear in 1858 in Lourdes France?” We can create its dependency ...
1
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1answer
128 views

Question on word probability for hierarchical softmax used in natural language processing

I am reading the following paper: https://papers.nips.cc/paper/5021-distributed-representations-of-words-and-phrases-and-their-compositionality.pdf On page 4 of the paper they describe the ...
1
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1answer
78 views

Understanding the geometrical interpretation of word2vec

I'm trying to understand how the $word2vec$ method actually nudges word vectors of similar semantic/syntactic content closer together in the word vector space. I've read here (Quora answer) that it's ...
1
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1answer
56 views

Applying Machine learning in biological data

I am trying to solve the following question: Given a text file containing a bunch of biological information, find out the one gene which is {up/down}regulated. Now, for this I have many such (60K) ...
1
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1answer
89 views

Explain better this new inventory for Word Sense Disambiguation

My question is about CSI (Coarse Sense Inventory), described in the paper CSI A Coarse Sense Inventory for 85% Word Sense Disambiguation (C Lacerra, M Bevilacqua, T Pasini, R Navigli). Before the ...
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1answer
100 views

Is there a meta text processing concept in CS?

I understand that text processing could be done in various ways on top of operating systems: Shell utilities for processing a file (and/or a file name): tr, ...