Questions tagged [notation]

Use this tag whenever you have a question about what some particular symbol/notation means.

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122 views

On asymptotic complexity class notation?

Is the class of problems with complexity $O(n^{n^\epsilon})$ at every $\epsilon>0$ same as class of problems with complexity $O(n^{f(n)})$ at every $f(n)\in\omega(1)$ and hence both classes are ...
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392 views

How to read 'max min' and 'min max'?

Here is an exercise I came across while studying MaxFlow / MinCut and I'm rather stumped: Designate $G = (V, E)$ as an undirected graph that has at least two vertices. Every edge $(e)$ on this ...
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173 views

What is the Haskell-style type signature called (i.e., who is it named after)?

A type signature in Haskell is written in the following format: functionName :: arg1Type -> arg2Type -> returnType There's a (hyphenated, after a person or ...
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1answer
60 views

How to express taking the next bit of an infinite string in small-step semantics?

I have to write a rule as part of a small step operational semantics (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_semantics). Whenever this rule is applied, the next bit belonging to an infinite bit ...
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1answer
21 views

How to understand the mathematical constraint of potentials?

Good evening! I am studying scheduling problems and I have some difficulties understanding constraints of potentials: Let be $t_j$ the time when a task $j$ starts, and $t_i$ the time when a task $i$ ...
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1answer
46 views

Why in the code i ≃ n?

i=2; while(i<n) { write('*'); i=i*i; } Why $n ≃ i$? I mean suppose $n=1000$ and so $i= 2,4,16,32,256,65536$ is in every steps. In the book wrote $2^2 ...
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1answer
45 views

Can the notation for polynomial reduction, A ≤p B be reversed in computability theory?

I don't know this is a proper question on this forum but I was reading about computability theory and I saw the reduction concept and its notation like this: $A \le_pB$. I just wanted to know is this ...
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1answer
82 views

What is the meaning of max() in intro. to algorithms?

I'm reading chapter 3(growth functions) of CLRS and in giving an example of proving theta for a standard quadratic function the book gives the following value for $n_0 = 2 \cdot max(|b|/a, \sqrt{|c|/a}...
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1answer
32 views

Syntax of recurrence formula not clear

I have this task for Analysis of Algorithms module in university $$ \begin{align*} W, V &= \{v_1, v_2, v_n\}, S = \{s_1, s_2, s_n\}\\ G(W) &= \max~_{i:w_i\leq w} ~\{G(W-s_i) + v_i\}, G(0)=0\\...
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42 views

Notation for expressing function call count during a program run

Which notation can be used for expressing how many times that function or subroutine called during a run of a program? Example program pseudocode: $ a \gets 0 \\ \textbf{While } a \neq 5 \textbf{ do}...
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316 views

How do I interpret this divide and conquer algorithm for removing duplicates in a list?

Consider the following divide and conquer algorithm to remove duplicates in a list. The text is in French. What is the meaning of the variables $c1, c2, d1, d2$? Why are only the variables $c1, d1$ ...
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2answers
79 views

Is there a generally agreed short notation for “a points to b”

Is there a conventional symbol for "points to" or "is a pointer to". I've been using a short right arrow; for example "a is a pointer to b" would be (approximately) ...
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1answer
105 views

What does superscript + mean in relational algebra?

What does superscript + mean in relational algebra? Suppose $A$ is a subset of attributes of all attributes in a relation $R$. What does $A^+$ mean?
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1answer
32 views

Asymptotic notation and random variables

I have two random variables $X$ and $Y$ and I want to bound the value of one in terms of the other (for now, I don't care about the actual distribution of their values). Suppose that the two ...
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0answers
31 views

What's the difference between Acfg and ALLcfg

In computational theory, and talking about CFGs, Turing Machines, and so forth I haven't a satisfactory explanation or definition for what ATM means versus ALLTM or the same or similar uses with ...
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54 views

What is this weird gate?

This came from a picture of something that I'm supposed to make, and I can't find it in the program I'm supposed to use (LogicWorks). It looks like it 'not's only one of its inputs, but that doesn't ...
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145 views

Reverse Polish to infix

I have to convert "A = B C + D E + ×" from reverse polish notation to infix. I'm a bit confused because of the equals sign. Is that an operator too? This is my answer: A = (B+C) × (D+E) Is this ...
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3answers
209 views

Difference in having * inside vs outside of brackets for NFA

If you have a question saying "draw the NFA for the following language" what difference does it makes if the language is $(0^* \cup1^*)$ vs $(0 \cup1)^*$ in otherwords what difference does it make for ...
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2answers
271 views

Clarify the steps: what happened in this mathematical modelling of TSP?

Source: http://examples.gurobi.com/traveling-salesman-problem I don't get this part: (look at the source) $$\sum_{i,j\in\{1,2,3\},i\neq j} x_{ij}=3>2=|\{1,2,3\}|-1$$ I get that $x_{ij}$ is ...
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1answer
73 views

Can I say ≤ O(f(x)) rather than = O(f(x)) if the bound is not tight?

Suppose I just invented merge sort, but due to my limited ability was only able to prove that the running time is $O(n^2)$. However, I suspect that the running time is actually better (in reality it's ...
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1answer
47 views

Converting sets into regular expressions

In my book: The set {abb, a, b, bba} is said to be converted into regular expression abb + a + b + bba. The set ...
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1answer
43 views

Express semantic duplicates of records formally

I'm working on a paper about record linkage and duplicate detection and want to visualize my definitions of "hard" and "semantic" duplicates. Hard ones are a 100% match; where's only true or false- ...
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1answer
913 views

Turing Machine notation

I'm a bit confused on some of the notation being used for turing machines in one of our exercises in class. The question gives us a string $\alpha \in \{0,1\}$* and the function $\mathsf{int}(\alpha)$...
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1answer
198 views

What is meant by the notation $L(…)$?

I am currently studying about formal languages and automata. I am trying to solve a problem but there is a notation whose meaning I'm not sure of. I have a question to find out the relationship ...
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2answers
56 views

Terminology for worst-case N-complexity on $O(1)$ insert after amortisation

Normally, when discussing amortisation and worst-case complexity, amortisation negates the worst-case scenarios, and the BigO describes the average for the operation (the way it's used in interviews ...
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1answer
124 views

Convert for loop into math sigma notation

Have some code (written in C), need the equivalent notation for mathematics. Is it possible using if-statements and sigma notation for this, and if so, how? ...
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1answer
54 views

What does $\overline{L}^*$ signify?

Suppose that $L$ is a language. What does $\overline{L}^*$ signify? Is $\overline{L^*}$ the same as $(\overline{L})^*$?
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1answer
54 views

How to represent a map data structure mathematically

Wondering how to represent a map object such as the following mathematically: var foo = { a: 10, b: 'bar', c: true } You could say that it was a function ...
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1answer
27 views

A commonly-used symbol for the set of all heads of directed edges?

Let $G = (V, E)$ be a digraph, and consider the set $\left\{ v \in V \; \middle| \; \left(\{v\} \times V \right) \cap E \neq \varnothing \right\}$, the set of vertices which form edges with other ...
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1answer
342 views

How do I normalize a push down automaton?

Looking at the above PDA, I am unsure whether or not it is normalized. Specifically, the loop transition from $q_1$ to $q_1$, because I know a transition must either push OR pop from the stack. Does ...
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1answer
85 views

representing set of non-overlaping string in formal notation

I want to represent a set of any substrings which come from an original string with constraint that all substrings should not be overlapped. To be more clear please consider the example below: e.g. <...
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1answer
47 views

Question on interpreting logical notation, relating to alphabets, theoretical comp sci

$\exists x \in \Sigma^* (t=sx)$ Have I interpreted the above into words correctly?: "There exists a symbol 'x', which is a member of the set which contains all possible strings of alphabet sigma, ...
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1answer
57 views

Trouble understanding Grammar Rules

I am totaly new to theoretical computer science, so I am sorry if I get the terminology wrong: I was reading the definition of a grammar, what I didn't get was the formal definition of the production ...
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1answer
40 views

There is any notation for a language that is empty infinite?

Assume that $L$ is a language, is there any established notation that means that $L$ is infinite or empty?
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1answer
482 views

Principles of Programming Languages: Understanding Judgements

I am taking a principles of programming languages class right now and am trying to understand the following judgement form. ...
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1answer
17 views

Transformation Function: Gonzalez and Woods

I have been reading Image Processing from Gonzalez and Woods and in the chapter Image Transformation I have come across this equation $$ T \left(u, v\right) = \sum_{x=0}^{M-1} { \sum_{y=0}^{N-1} ...
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32 views

Did Menezes et al. switch the letters $\mu$ and $\lambda$ in Floyd's cycle detection note 3.8?

The letters $\mu$ and $\lambda$ are usually used to represent, respectively, the length of the tail of the graph and length of the cycle in the graph. But Menezes on note 3.8, page 91 (or PDF-page 6),...
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12 views

How to denote a graph class which allows only $k$ instances of a certain induced subgraph?

Suppose that a graph class $\mathcal{C}$ is defined as follows: A graph $G$ belongs to $\mathcal{C}$ if, and only if $G$ is chordal, but has at most $k$ $5$-cycles. I am aware that the ...
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41 views

Banker's algorithm

I have a question regarding the banker's algorithm step 2. When it says the Need[i] <= work. Need is an n * m matrix and work is a vector of length m. I want to know what Need[i] <= Work means. ...
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37 views

Representing Graham Scan Mathematically

I am aware the convex hull algorithm known as Graham Scan can be computed by sorting the derived vectors from points given in a 2D plane. One then iterates through a series of Cross Product ...
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88 views

What does an = sign with an x beneath it mean?

I am studying for a test in Logic right now, and saw the symbol $\underset{x}{=}$, which is used like this: $I \underset{x}{=} I'$. I've seen it in the solutions of questions like this one: Prove ...
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1answer
21 views

Selection type generated by nested loops where initial value is current value of parent loop

Consider the generator of the selections: ...
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37 views

What are these notations O(1)/O(n)/O(log n)? [duplicate]

I am a newbie here I recently read tutorials on java about collection framework. The time complexity of various objects in reading/writing data What does it mean? ...
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1answer
77 views

Notation: $L_R = \{w\#y\space|\space R(w,y)\}$?

What is the set $$L_R = \{w\#y\space|\space R(w,y)\}$$ Specifically what kind of conditional is $R(w,y)$? Also what's the purpose of $\#$? This comes from page 2 of the Clay paper on P vs NP: http://...
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1answer
63 views

Clarification notation in CLRS runtime analysis

I am learning algorithms from the clrs book. I am having trouble understanding the notation the book has placed. The book wrote the following: $t_j$ denote the number of times the ...
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1answer
46 views

Meaning of `<==>` in documentation? [closed]

Title says it all. I just need to confirm that... X.__add__(y) <==> x+y ...doesn't mean anything more than just 'same as' The problem is Google returns zero ...
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1answer
39 views

Why $\left\lceil lgn \right\rceil <lgn+1\le 2lgn\quad for\quad all\quad n\ge 2$

I have some confusion about 3.2-4 in CLRS. Here is the question : Is the function $\left\lceil \log { n } \right\rceil !$ polynomially bounded? Is the function $\left\lceil \log { \log { n } } \...
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1answer
100 views

How to negate this one?

How can I negate the following sentence: For all words x from L with |x|>= n , exists decomposition x = uvw with |uv| <= n and |v| >= 1, so for all i >= 0 , is valid that u(v)^iw in L is.

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