Questions tagged [np-hard]

decision problems that are at least as hard as NP-complete problems

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Is it NP-hard to fill up bins with minimum moves?

There are $n$ bins and $m$ type of balls. The $i$th bin has labels $a_{i,j}$ for $1\leq j\leq m$, it is the expected number of balls of type $j$. You start with $b_j$ balls of type $j$. Each ball of ...
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Is finding a weight-balanced tree NP-hard?

In the following, we consider binary trees where only the leaves have weights. Let $T$ be a binary tree and $W(T)$ be the sum of the weights of its leaves. Let $T.l$ and $T.r$ be the left child and ...
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Minimum edge deletion partitioning of a planar graph

I'm interested in the time complexity of the following problem: Given an undirected planar graph $G=(V,E)$ and a weight function $w:E \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$ (so weights can be negative, too), color ...
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8 votes
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NP-hardness for one-dimensional facility location problem with entrance fee for each customer

We have $n$ customers, $(x_1, \dots, x_n)$, sorted on the read line. For convenience, we also use $x_i$ to denote its coordinate on the line. We need to locate $m$ facilities on the real line. We note ...
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6 votes
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Minimum weighted vertex cover on grid graph

Let $G'_{m,n}=(V,E)$ be the grid graph $G_{m,n}$, to which we add "diagonal" edges. For example, here is $G'_{6,3}$: And for each vertex $v_i \in V$, we have a associated positive value $c_i$ ...
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NP-hardness of a special traveling salesman problem

Consider we have $n$ vertices, $v_1,\ldots,v_n$. We have two positive values $(a_i,b_i)$ associated with each $v_i$. The edge weight $w(v_iv_j)=a_ia_j+b_ib_j$. Is it NP-hard to solve the traveling ...
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Has this graph-theoretic problem got a known name? Is it NP-hard?

I am considering the following problem. We are given a Directed Acyclic Graph. In general, there would be some number of subgraphs that, contracted into one node, would make it a tree. For example, ...
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Time Complexity of a Knapsack-derived problem

Consider the following problem: Let there be a set A of $n$ items $A=\{z_1, ..., z_n\}$, and let $W$ be a strictly positive integer. Each item $z_i$ has a value $v_i$ and a weight $w_i$. Finding a ...
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Find a permutation that maximize the minimum of $\frac{a_n}{a_{n-1}} + \frac{a_n}{a_{n+1}}$

Consider a sequence of $n$ positive real numbers $a_0,\ldots,a_{n-1}$. Let $S_n$ be the set of permutations on $\{0,\ldots,n-1\}$. We are interested to find $$ \max_{\pi\in S_n}\left( \min_{i=0}^{n-...
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Algorithm for solving a mixed integer programming problem in polynomial time?

I have the following mixed integer programming (MIP) problem: $$ \begin{array}{rll} \text{Maximize } & z=k \\ \text{subject to } & a_ik - m_i \geq 0 & (i=1,\dots,n) \\ & b_ik - m_i \...
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4 votes
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Rectangle Packing with Constraints

I am aware that the general rectangle packing problem is NP-hard. I am trying to form an estimate for a version of the problem with constraints. Consider fitting rectangles of smaller size into a ...
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Is Hamiltonian cycle problem on graphs with out-degree at most 3 NP hard?

I am trying to show a different form of Hamiltonian cycle problem is NP Hard. The problem is as follows. We have a directed graph and each node can have at most 3 outgoing edges. Determine if this ...
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Finding the "most modular" subset of graph vertices, i.e. that minimize disagreement inside and outside

Let $G = (V, E)$ be a graph. I want to find the subset of vertices of $G$ that minimizes a certain modularity cost. In our setting, the modularity cost of a subset $X$ is defined as the number of ...
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Graph optimization problem with multiple objectives/constraints

Let's assume that we have a directed acyclic graph $G = (V, E)$, non-negative vertex weight functions $w_a(v)$ and $w_b(v)$, and a non-negative edge weight function $t(u,v)$. We want to divide ...
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Complexity of a non-linear knapsack problem

Minimize $$\sum_{i=1}^{n}\sum_{j=1}^{m_i}w_{i,j}v_{i,j}$$ subject to $$\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{m_i}{m_i+\sum_{j=1}^{m_i}v_{i,j}} < \theta$$ $$v_{i,j}\in\{0,1\}~\forall i,~j$$ where $w_{i,j}$ and ...
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Reduction from knapsack problem to Integer relation that equals one

My question is related to the Integer Relation Detection Problem which can be formulated as: $\qquad a_1x_1 + a_2x_2 + \cdots + a_nx_n = 0$ Where $\forall i. a_i\in\mathbb{Z} \land a_i<c \land x\...
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Low-rank matrix completion is NP-hard

In looking into the problem of low-rank matrix completion / relaxations of the general problem to derive exact solutions, many papers cite that the original formulation is NP-hard but I cannot find a ...
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Is protein folding really NP-hard and how to show that?

This question has two facets that are related. Is the general problem of protein folding really NP-hard? The hydrophobic-polar protein folding model (Ken Dill et al., 1985) stated the problem on a ...
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Scheduling is NP-Hard via vertex cover

Are there any existing proofs involving a reduction of the single machine scheduling problem (in any of its forms really) from vertex cover in order to prove its NP-hardness? Particularly looking for ...
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3 votes
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Is a "stacked", "local" version of 3-SAT NP-hard?

In this previous question, I learned that if each variable in a string $C \in 3\text{-SAT}$ appears only "locally", then finding a satisfying assignment is no longer NP-hard. My question below builds ...
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A special case of the SUBSET SUM problem

Consider the following special case of SUBSET SUM Inputs: Positive integers $a$ and $b$ with $a \ne b$, and positive integers $k$ and $t$, with $k$ specified in unary. Encoding: These inputs (...
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Karp hardness of a module in a graph

DEFINITION: A set of vertices $A\subseteq V$ in a graph $G(V,E)$ is called a module if it satisfies the following property: For every $v\in V\setminus A$, either $A\subseteq N(v)$ or $A\cap N(v)=\...
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3 votes
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Showing a problem on a specific class of graphs is NP-hard

We know that a set of problems like minimum clique cover problem, coloring problem, vertex cover, ... are NP-hard for general graphs, but may be polynomial-time solvable for some classes of specific ...
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Solving systems of boolean equations

So I have a system of equations where varibles range over $\{0,1\}$ and the only operation is logical or ($\lor$). Each equation is of the one of two forms 1) $a = b \lor c$ 2) $1 = a \lor b$ where ...
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Is this sparsity constrained convex projection problem NP-hard?

Suppose we are working in ${\mathbb R}^d$ (dimension is not fixed), and we have a set of $n$ points $X = \{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ in that space. Given a query point $y$ inside the convex hull of $X$ and an ...
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100 views

Is finding all valid nets of a polyhedron NP-hard?

Suppose I wanted to find all valid nets of a polyhedron. Is this kind of problem NP-Hard? My guess is that it is. If you were to increase the "complexity" of the polyhedron (maybe this is the number ...
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Hardness of a special case of maximum matching

Input: A set of $n$ Users $U=\{u_1, ..., u_n\}$ and a set of $m$ products $I=\{i_1, ..., i_m\}$. Associated with each pair $u \in U$ and $i \in I$ is the probability $p_{u,i}$ of $u$ purchasing the ...
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Do non-linear dynamical systems have the potential to have an edge on other algorithms when it comes to computing NP-complete problems?

In a recent presentation, I've seen the difficulty of NP-complete/NP-hard problems attributed to the fact that they often have "long range" correlations, or at least they can be interpreted ...
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Exact Cover variant: partition a family of subsets into exact coverings

I have found that a problem that I'm analyzing is equivalent to the following variant of the Exact Cover problem: Partition into $k$ Exact Covers Input: A universe ...
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Maximum Edges Subgraph

Given an (undirected) graph $G = (V,E)$ with $|V| = 2n$, what is the complexity of the problem of finding the subgraph $G' = (V',E')$ with $V' \subset V, |V'| = n$, such that the number of edges $|E'| ...
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2 votes
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81 views

Is it NP-hard to find different roots of different matrices simultaneously?

Consider the following problem: input: pairwise distinct natural numbers $k_1,\dots,k_m$ that are all $\leq n$, and matrices $A_1,\dots,A_m \in \Bbb Q^{n \times n}$ where $m \leq n$. output: a ...
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Partition columns into m groups to maximize absolute value sums

The Task You are given $n$ columns each of length $m$. All values are either $-1$ or $1$. Find an assignment $s$ of each of columns to 1 of $m$ groups in order to maximize the sum of all the absolute ...
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NP-hardness proof of an optimization problem with real values and rational input in the decision problem

I'm studying complexity theory and I have the below question regarding $NP$-hardness proofs of optimization problems with real values. Any reference is much appreciated. For the question, take the ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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How far would complexity hierarchies collapse if $L\in CoNP$ is $L\in NPH$?

Let $L\in CoNP$. Assuming that $L\in NPH$, what would we get? So, as $L\in NPH$ then every language $A\in NP$ has a reduction $A \leq L$. This would mean that $\overline{L} \leq L$ as well. By ...
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2 votes
1 answer
114 views

Sub-exponential time algorithm to compute playoff chances

There are 10 teams, Team A through Team J, playing in a triple round robin pool (each team plays thrice against each other team, for a total of a 27 games per team). After the round robin pool, the ...
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2 votes
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P/NP - Proof that SAT-TM is NP-complete uses certificate

To prove that SAT-TM (Turing machine emulating the satisfiability problem) is NP-Hard $$\text{SAT-TM}:=\{⟨M,p,1^k⟩ \; | \;∃c,\; |c|\leq p(k), \;\text{such that M accepts c in ≤k steps}\}$$ my ...
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2 votes
0 answers
74 views

Why do I only need to reduce from one problem in NP to prove NP-Hardness?

Suppose I wish to show that my decision problem $Q$ is NP-Hard. Why do I need to reduce from one problem $Q'$ of known hardness ? Consider for instance the following situation: Here, I have my set NP ...
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2 votes
0 answers
28 views

Karp hardness of two vertex sets in a digraph

Given a digraph $G(V,A)$ and a number $k$, we want to find two vertex subsets $S,T\subseteq V$ such that: $|S|+|T|=k$ For every $v\notin S\cup T$, $v$ has no arcs coming to $S$, and no arcs coming ...
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Finding maximum weighted n disjoint cliques

Maximum weight clique problem has some attention but i could not find any efficient approaches to this problem yet. I acknowledge that it is np-hard, but are there any known approximations? Given a ...
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Complexity of a submatrix rank problem

Given a matrix $M \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times m}$ and a set $S \subset \{1, \ldots, n\}$, let $M_{S, {\rm row}}$ be the matrix obtained by picking the rows of $M$ from the set $S$. Similarly, given $S' \...
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0 answers
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Longest path in a *shrinked* graph

Some definitions: Consider the unweighted directed graph $G$, where each node is uniquely represented by an $n$-bit vector of $0$'s and $1$'s. Now consider this scenario: we want to 'shrink the ...
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2 votes
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238 views

Is there a name for the knapsack problem with no bound on knapsack capacity?

I am investigating heuristics for optimising the packing a fixed number of knapsacks with a set of items of defined weights, however the knapsacks do not have a defined capacity limit. The objective ...
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2 votes
0 answers
283 views

Is Max-2SAT with exactly 3 occurrences per variable APX-hard?

The Max-2SAT problem asks if at least k clauses of a 2CNF formula can be satisfied. The Max-2SAT(at-most-3) problem is the restriction in which every variable occurs in at most 3 clauses (counting ...
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2 votes
0 answers
158 views

Minimum cost edge disjoint paths - NP hard?

I've been stuck on this problem for a while now. Here it is: The Network Reliability Problem (NRP) is defined as follows: Given an undirected graph with $n$ vertices $v_{1}, \dots, v_{n}$, a ...
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A particular type of SOS hardness proof

Is there an example of a sum of squares (SOS) hardness proof where the constraint is something non-trivial (like with some polynomial constraint) rather than just imposing the the typical $x_i^2 =1$ ...
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2 votes
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96 views

Problem related to the Knapsack problem: Is it NP-hard?

I am trying to know whether the following problem is NP-hard: Input: A positive number $k$ and $N$ pairs of numbers. Each pair $i$, contains the positive numbers $a_i$ and $b_i$. The problem is to ...
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204 views

Hardness of a maximum contiguous subarray sum for a sparse multi-dimensional array

Suppose we have a d-dimensional array A (d > 1) where each dimension has length n. The array is given in sparse notation as input, and the number of given non-zero elements is N. We want to find a ...
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  • 1,681
2 votes
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Travelling salesman problem with detours

I am interested if there exists a following version of the travelling salesman problem: INSTANCE: A finite set $C = \{1,2,\dots,k\}$ of cities, a positive integer distance $\delta(i,j)$ for each pair ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Assumptions needed by Exact Cover by 3-Sets (X3C)

The problem is defined as https://npcomplete.owu.edu/2014/06/10/exact-cover-by-3-sets/: Given a set $X$, with $|X| = 3q$ (so, the size of $X$ is a multiple of $3$), and a collection $C=\{(x_{i1},x_{...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Extended venn diagram

I try to solve a computational problem, but its solution lives on a generalized Venn diagram statement. I was able to obtain its general formula, but now I require some necessary conditions to avoid k ...
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