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Questions tagged [parsers]

Questions about algorithms that decide whether a given string belongs to a fixed formal language.

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1answer
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Is there a LL(K) Grammar which is not LALR(K) Grammar?

It is easy to know that there are LALR(K) grammars which are not LL(K) because any grammar with left recursion which is LALR(K), is not LL(K) because all LL(K) grammar must be left recursion free. And ...
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0answers
39 views
+50

Can Earley parser work in parallel?

Since Earley parser finds all possible application variants for a token, can it parse text in parallel, unlike the usual parser like stack-based, etc. You just need to modify the start of each ...
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1answer
27 views

Why ambiguous grammars are allowed for operator precedence parser?

I am aware of what is ambiguity, and why is it necessary to eliminate ambiguity in compilers in a certain context, but how can we allow ambiguity for operator precedence parser? Say I have a set of ...
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2answers
43 views

What is the use of First() and Follow() in compiler design?

I am completely aware of how to calculate first and follow, my professor has taught me that well , but he had not explained what is the need of First() and Follow(), so any explanation why we need ...
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1answer
50 views

Connection between non determinism and LL(1) conflicts

I am trying to understand connection between non determinism of grammar and LL(1) conflicts introduced by it. As per my understanding non deterministic context free grammar is a context free grammar ...
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1answer
28 views

Unambiguousness and determinism of CFGs for them to be LR

I came across this statement: Note that there are unambiguous grammars for which every LR parser construction method will produce a parsing action table with parsing action conflicts. I was ...
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0answers
14 views

CYK algorithm - how to handle unknown terminals given in a sentence to parse?

There is a given treebank which we derive the Probabilistic context free grammar. I wonder how do one handles with a given sentence which includes terminals that don't exist in the derived rules? Is ...
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1answer
37 views

SLR(1) Table construction, FIRST and FOLLOWS

when constructing the SLR(1) table for some grammar I need to compute the FOLLOW set for all terminals in order to decide where and when to reduce. Do I compute theme for the augmented grammar or ...
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1answer
156 views

Handling epsilon productions in recursive descent parsing

I am working on a recursive descent parser for lambda calculus. In my grammar, after removing left-recursion, I am left with the following two productions: ...
2
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1answer
56 views

In what sense a type of parser is less power than the other?

I am learning LR(0), SLR(1), CLR(1) and LALR(1) parsers. I know how parsing tables of each of them is formed. If x < y means parser x is less "powerful" that parser y, then, I read, the ...
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1answer
58 views

When will SLR(1) parser fail but CLR(1) will not

Dragon book says following about where SLR(1) parser can fail but CLR(1) wont: Recall that in the SLR method, state $i$ calls for reduction by $A→α$ if the set of items $I_i$ contains item $[A→α.]$...
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0answers
26 views

Understanding handle, viable prefix and valid item in the context of LR(0) and LR(1) items

Dragon book gives definition of handle, viable prefix and valid item at various different places. I am trying to understand these definitions in each other's context. Various definitions given are as ...
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3answers
981 views

Does precedence matter in constructing parse trees of arithmetic expressions for postfix notation?

Table 4 in Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures's chapter on Infix, Prefix and Postfix Expressions gives the following examples: ...
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1answer
38 views

context-free grammar for comma-separated list with comments

I'm trying to write a context-free grammar for a comma-separated list of statements with comments. It is trivial if the comma appears at the end of a statement. It is trivial if the comment is ...
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0answers
14 views

Connection of relation between valid item and viable prefix with canonical collection

I was trying to understand connection between different concepts of parsers and how those are followed in actual parsing steps. I came across following statement while reading LR parsers: An item ...
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0answers
45 views

Creating a grammar for a a language for instructions, with repititions

I have a language that consists of instructions for movement on a 2D-plane. You start at coordinate [0,0] The instructions DOWN 1 UP 10 LEFT 5 RIGHT 1 means you ...
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1answer
4k views

LL(1) parsing table construction

i have the following CFG E -> ABC A-> a|Cb|epsilon B-> c|xA|epsilon C-> y|z and the First of the Non-Terminal : ...
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1answer
111 views

Proof that the grammar is LL(2)

I am given the following grammar: $ S \rightarrow AabAba \\ A \rightarrow a | \epsilon $ and I have to prove it is LL(2). I know what LL(k) means - one can choose a production based on k characters ...
2
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1answer
180 views

Negative lookahead in LR parsing algorithm

Consider such a rule in grammar for an LR-family parsing generator (e.g YACC, BISON, etc.): Nonterminal : [ lookahead not in {Terminal1, ..., TerminalN} ] Rule ; ...
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2answers
30 views

Why can we (apparently) implement CFG parsers only using (N)DFAs?

I am working on a project in which I need to parse files written in different DSLs. One important feature of these languages is that most of them allow blocks to be nested. For parsing those files I ...
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2answers
95 views

CFG - Left factoring in recursive nested productions

I'm attempting to convert a CFG into an LL(1) grammar for predictive parsing in a compiler. I've been able to left factor and eliminate left recursion and ambiguity for every case in the grammar, with ...
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0answers
32 views

Understanding the rules of parsing table construction

I'm studying top-down parsing, especially LL(1) parsing. However, I cannot understand what is the meaning of rules. Example grammer is like this S → ( S ) S | $\epsilon$ How can I derive like ...
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1answer
27 views

Check grammar for LL(1)?

If I have to check a Left Recursive grammer for LL(1) then should I check it after removing left recursion? For example:- S-> (L)|a L->L.S|S If I check after removing Left Recursion then the above ...
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1answer
144 views

How does SpaCy make its dependency tree?

I discovered that SpaCy had the ability to make dependency trees. For instance given a question “To whom did the Virgin Mary allegedly appear in 1858 in Lourdes France?” We can create its dependency ...
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3answers
458 views

Example of a parsing/rewriting system?

I am studying formal languages and playing with writing my own parsers for them. I have a context free grammar parser already that works well. I am wondering if anyone can point me towards actually ...
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1answer
31 views

How to find First in a left recursive grammar?

One of the basic requirements for a grammar to be LL(1) is : For every pai r of productions A -> X | Y, First(X) and First(Y) should be disjointed. If a grammar is left-recursive, then the set of ...
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1answer
33 views

Whether it's necessary for a grammar to be ambiguous when it is both left recursive and right recursive

I read somewhere that if a grammar is left recursive as well as right recursive, then it is not necessarily ambiguous. I couldn't make up my mind on this statement. How can a grammar which is both ...
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0answers
106 views

The rightmost derivation is possible with the same rule of leftmost derivation

Can someone please help me in understanding the statement. What does it exactly mean? What I think it means is that: the derivation produces by the leftmost derivation is also possible with rightmost ...
3
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1answer
133 views

Bottom up chart parser adding active arc step

I am following Bottom up chart parsing algorithm from Natural Language Understanding book by James Allen. It is I couldn't understand the 3rd step. I thought that when active arc is added the dot ...
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1answer
35 views

is conflict possible In accepting state of LR(0)?

Consider the following grammar: Stmts -> Stmt | Stmts;Stmt Stmt -> Var =E Var ->id[E] | id E-> id | (E) in accepting state we get ...
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1answer
34 views

Is this a proper LL(1) Grammar?

Please take this question with a grain of salt. I'm trying to write a very simple layout engine and wanted to formally create a grammar to parse the input. I stayed up all night researching LL(k) ...
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1answer
286 views

Tokenization Problem

Yes, this is a quiz question. It's from a self-paced course, but the answer just isn't correct to me no matter how I look at it. There isn't really an active community to consult. My Regular ...
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1answer
1k views

LR(0) parsing: how can I know sets of items corresponding to states?

I'm studying LR(0) parser. But I don't understand how sets of items corresponding to states can be calculated. I think The author would miss some information readers must know. Given the following LR(...
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2answers
44 views

Why can't exhaustive search parsing stop after |w| + 1 derivations?

If my grammar does not have productions of the form $A\rightarrow\lambda$ and $A\rightarrow B$ for some variables $A$ and $B$ then I know that each step in the derivation must involve an increase in ...
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1answer
1k views

How to generate an LL(2) parse table?

The algorithms I've seen for building an LL(1) parse table involve calculating first and follow sets such that: ...
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1answer
54 views

Leo's deterministic reduction for Earley Parsing

I am trying to build an Earley parser using the Wikipedia pesudocode as a base, with Aycock's fix for epsilon rules as follows: ...
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1answer
30 views

SLR parse table and unambiguity

If it is possible to construct an SLR parse table with no conflicts for a particular grammar does that mean that the grammar is unambiguous? I think that since we have constructed the parse table ...
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0answers
15 views

State of the art of parser handling of offset errors

Say you are parsing a complicated binary file but there is 1 extra byte inserted somewhere. This could completely mess up the entire parse, but if you just looked ahead one token you would see the ...
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1answer
1k views

Are LALR tables equal to SLR tables if the grammar is SLR modulo precedence/associativity of operators?

Consider a grammar G which is SLR(1) except for some shift/reduce conflicts which can be resolved by imposing some precedence or associativity of operators. Is it the case that the construction of ...
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0answers
40 views

Get grammar from his LALR(1) parsing table

I have a problem with this exercise. This is the LALR(1) parsing table for the grammar G. How can i get the productions of G? Thanks :)
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1answer
43 views

Is the following Grammar LL(1)

I was given the following grammar $S \rightarrow S ( S ) S\mid \epsilon$ First I was asked to eliminate left recursion, yielding me the following : $S \rightarrow S' $ $S' \rightarrow (S)...
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1answer
39 views

First Sets: If $A \to Ad\ |\ c$, what is $First(A)$?

Suppose that we have a grammar with the following rules: $$S \to Aa\ |\ b\ |\ \varepsilon\\ A \to Ad\ |\ c$$ From looking at it I already know that $First(S) = \{b, \varepsilon, c\}$. My question is:...
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0answers
15 views

what are the limitations of definite clause grammars?

Definite clause grammars have been around for a long time but there are not the answer to every parsing problem or we would not need to invent new formalisms. Are there any languages they cannot ...
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1answer
22 views

How to solve the following left recursion?

A common left recursion: A -> Aa | B can be solve by transforming it into: A -> BA' A' -> aA' | E However, I ...
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1answer
2k views

Parsing a string with LR parsing table

Me and my friends are studying for an upcoming test and this exercise is one of the harder ones for us. We have been trying to solve it and we have been looking at similar exercises, the problem is ...
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3answers
187 views

Weak Precedence Grammar and Parsing

I am studying parsing, i.e. bottom-up parsing. it is said that there some rules which are used by weak precedence grammar. What does weak precedence grammar mean? What about precedence relation? Any ...
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0answers
19 views

Is there any difference in the expressiveness of boolean grammars versus definite clause grammars?

Definite clause grammars have been around a long time and are included in logic languages such as Prolog. They can be translated into (are just syntactic sugar for) Prolog programs and are therefore ...
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0answers
76 views

Do SLR(1) parsers have lookahead?

The SLR(1) parses AFAIK does not have any lookahead with it then why do we write it as SLR(1) and not as SLR(0). The thing about parsers which I read online taught me that if it's LR(K) then K ...
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1answer
334 views

Prove that every CFL is decidable in O(n) space

this question came up while a group of students at my school were studying for our qualifying exams. The question on an old exam was: Prove that every context free language $A$ is in $\mathrm{SPACE}...
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0answers
40 views

What strategies exist for handling/resolving ambiguity in parsers?

I define a parser as a context-free grammar with semantic actions for each production. It is not defined in what order the semantic actions run, just that the semantic actions of the non-terminals in ...