Questions tagged [polynomial-time]

Use for algorithms, algorithm-analysis and complexity-theory questions that aim for polynomial running time resp. time complexity. Such questions often are are reference-requests or about runtime-analysis or time-complexity.

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20 views

Solving NP problems : analogy between the SAT problem and the shortest path problem

in this 2minute-long video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJ49N6WvT8M (pulled from a free udacity course on algorithms/theoretical computer sciences), whose purpose is to show how a SAT problem can ...
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1answer
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Is a DTM with k-tapes not the same thing as a NDTM with k-branches?

In the definition of a complexity class like P, where they reference Deterministic Turing machines (DTMs), I don't see any restriction on # of tapes these DTMs are allowed to use. If a language L is ...
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An algorithm to determine probability of one string appearing earlier than another string in an evenly distributed binary sequence

Given two binary strings of length $n$ and $m$, determine in polynomial time the probability of the first appearance of one string being earlier than the first appearance of the other one in an evenly ...
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Argument in proving that function is not polynomial time in bit length of input seems faulty

I am currently solving a question that asks which of the following functions can be calculated in polynomial time: $$n!, \binom{n}{5}, \binom{2n}{n}, n^{\lfloor \lg n \rfloor}, \lfloor \sqrt{n} \...
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Does the language defined in the details in NP-C or P?

It's known that: $$ \textrm{CLIQUE} = \{(G,k): \mbox{G has a clique of size } k\} $$ is $\textrm{NP-C}$, but what if every vertex has 2 neighbours (as defined in $\textrm{2d-CLIQUE}$)? $$ \textrm{2d-...
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Is Geometric Disjoint Set Cover in P?

I have come across the following optimisation subproblem: Geometric Disjoint Set Cover. Consider a collection $C$ of (not necessarily distinct) ranges taken from a universe range $X \subset \mathbb{...
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34 views

On the hardness of constraint satisfaction

I am interested in the hardness of the following question. Suppose we have a vector of $n$ optimization variables $\mathbf{x} = \langle x_1, . . ., x_n\rangle $ and $m$ vectors $\mathbf{v}_1, . . .,\...
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Looking for some references on voting theory

After reading through this paper on optimizing the sum of sigmoid functions, http://www.web.stanford.edu/~boyd/papers/pdf/max_sum_sigmoids.pdf, I am interested in the problem addressed in section 7.3 ...
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What is $f(n)$ in $NTIME(n)\subseteq DTIME(f(n))$ if $CIRCUITSAT$ is in $P$?

If $CIRCUITSAT$ in $n$ variables and $m$ gates has an $O((nm)^c)$ algorithm for a fixed $c>0$ then $NTIME(n)\subseteq DTIME(O(f(n)))$ for large enough $f(n)$. What is the smallest $f(n)$ in $NTIME(...
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Proof that Special case of SUBSET SUM is in P [duplicate]

So i know that SUBSET SUM is in NP. But given the following special case: The numbers $\ a_i,...,a_n $ with $\ i= 1,...,n-1 $ fulfill the condition: $\ a_i|a_{i+1} $ ($\ a_i $ divides $\ a_{i+1} $) ...
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Functional problem and verifying solutions

Is there a functional problem for which there is an algorithm that can decide if a solution is a solution or not in polynomial time but we can't find a solution in polynomial time? Let FP be the ...
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How undecidable is it whether a given Turing machine runs in polynomial time?

The proof of Theorem 1 that PTime is not semi-decidable in this recent preprint effectively shows that it is $\mathsf{R}\cup\mathsf{coR}$-hard. The proof itself is similar to undecidability proofs at ...
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motivation and idea of defining non-deterministic Turing machine

This is a very basic question but I spent some time reading and find no answer. I am not computer science majored but have read some basic algorithm stuff, for example, some basic sorting algorithms ...
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Conditional lower bounds on the running time of the single source shortest path problem

Just out of curiosity, I was wondering whether there is a conditional lower-bound on the running time of an algorithm for the Single Source Shortest Path Problem (on directed or undirected graphs). I ...
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43 views

Are chaotic systems computable in polynomial time

Suppose the parameters/inputs of the computation include the time at which the configuration of a particular deterministic chaotic system needs to be computed. Say, for instance, as input we have a ...
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Min-Ones-2-SAT getting to vertex cover

In the Min-Ones-2-SAT problem, we are given a 2-CNF formula φ and an integer k, and the objective is to decide whether there exists a satisfying assignment for φ with at most k variables set to true....
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P/NP - Polynomial Reduction vs Certificate

I am learning about the P/NP problem right now, and I don't understand when to use polynomial reduction and when to use a certificate. How I understand polynomial reduction is that you can use it to ...
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23 views

Use Fact to decompose a given number

Let Fact be the following decision problem. Given two natural numbers $k \le n$ the machine accepts if and only if $n$ has a non-trivial divisor that is less than or equal to $k$. Prove that if Fact $\...
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Difference Between PTAS and FPTAS [duplicate]

According to this link: Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS) is a type of approximate algorithms that provide user to control over accuracy which is a desirable feature. These algorithms ...
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Useful conditions for proving super polynomial lower bound for some kind of recurrences

Given a recurrence of the form $\forall n,m.\ \ T(n,m)=\begin{cases}1,&,m=1\\\sum_i{T(n_i,m_i)}&,\text{else}\end{cases}$ Note: both $n_i$ and $m_i$ are dependent on $n,m$ so they should have ...
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108 views

Simple Hamiltonian cycle reduction

HAMPATH Input: An undirected graph $G$ and 2 nodes $s, t$ Question: Does G contain a Hamiltonian path from $s$ to $t$? HAMCYCLE Input: A undirected graph $G$ and a nodes $s$ ...
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How many combinations will be generated if below conditions are put?

I need a generalized formula for a set having size(s) having below restrictions, for ex. X = 2,7,11,17,26 I want only the first combination 2+7 & ignore all of the combinations that start from 2+...
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Number of equivalence classes in $P$

I am currently taking a course which involves computational complexity. I was told that polynomial equivalence (polynomial time reduction) divides P into exactly 3 equivalent classes, namely $\phi$ , $...
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79 views

is $x^{100000000000}$ a “polynomial time”?

per this post $t = x^2$ means the problem is solvable in "Polynomial" time. per this post in the form $$a_{n}x^{n}+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\dotsb +a_{2}x^{2}+a_{1}x+a_{0} { > \boldsymbol{=0}}$$ ...
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248 views

Reduce 4-SAT to 5-SAT

given is a reduction from 4-SAT to 5-SAT. How is it possible to describe such a function? I found some informations about reduction 3-SAT to 4-SAT here, but it can't help me so much.
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Is retrospective inference NP-hard?

Here is a minimal working example of the question: Consider a network with nodes arranged in a pyramid: $1$ node in the first row, $1+d$ nodes in the second, $1+2d$ nodes in the third, and so on, ...
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Is a “stacked”, “local” version of 3-SAT NP-hard?

In this previous question, I learned that if each variable in a string $C \in 3\text{-SAT}$ appears only "locally", then finding a satisfying assignment is no longer NP-hard. My question below builds ...
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Is a “local” version of 3-SAT NP-hard?

Below is my simplification of part of a larger research project on spatial Bayesian networks: Say a variable is "$k$-local" in a string $C \in 3\text{-CNF}$ if there are fewer than $k$ clauses ...
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Smallest string containing sets of letters

I am looking for a solution to this problem: Given multiple sets of letters (Set0={a,b,c,d}, Set1={d,e,f,g}, Set2={a,b,e,g}, ...), what is the minimal length of the string containing all the sets. The ...
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1answer
412 views

Minimum diameter spanning tree problem

Minimum diameter spanning tree (MDST) problem is defined as following: given the connected weighted graph $G(V, E)$, weight function $w: E \rightarrow R, w(e) > 0\ \forall e \in E$, find the ...
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133 views

Polynomial Time reducible explanation

Have a set of examples given to me, but I'm pretty sure they're all wrong. Can someone verify that my understanding of them is correct? If set $Y$ can be solved in $O(2^n)$ and $Y \leq_p X$ then $X ...
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Complexity of an encoded turing machine

This is an example of an assignment question, there are 3 of them so I created my own in order to better understand it. First, we have the variable m which is a ...
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1answer
179 views

CRC computation speed vs polynomials features

I tried to find information about how features of a CRC polynomials influence computation speed of implementations. It is obvious that (depending from the CPU architecture the algorithm runs on) ...
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Subset Sum Search Problem for Input with At Most One Solution [closed]

Edit: This question has been reasked on TCS. We first consider the search version of the subset sum problem: Given a set $S$ of $n$ naturals, find a subset of $S$ that sums to exactly $W$. My ...
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1answer
131 views

Is there a polynomial-time reduction from a NP-hard problem to the complement of tautology?

Is the following true or false? Why? Let $Y$ denote the complement of the tautology problem. If a problem X is NP-hard, then there is a polynomial-time (many-one) reduction of $Y \leq_{p} X$.
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Calculating the number of assignments satisfying a general propositional formula

I know, for a disjunctive clause of the form $x_1 \vee ... \vee x_i$, the number of assignments satisfying it is simply $2^i - 1$, but what about for a general formula? Is the number of satisfying ...
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Is the succinct version of P-complete problems out of P?

Consider the succinct versions of the P-complete problems as a Boolean circuit which represents its input in exponential more succinct ways. Could these succinct versions are in P or out of P?
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Polynomial Time Algorithm for Steiner Tree Problem

I know about Steiner Tree Problem. It is stated as Input to Steiner Tree Problem is a weighted graph G and a subset T of the nodes (called terminal nodes) and goal is to find a minimum weight tree ...
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Determine whether a system of $n$ linear equations has solutions in $\{0, 1\}^n$ in polynomial time

I'm trying to determine whether it is possible to decide if a system of $n$ linear equations with integer coefficients and $n$ variables has a solution in $\{0, 1\}^n$ in polynomial time. ...
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Are you allowed to change the specifications of a problem when doing reductions?

I'm doing a polynomial time reduction from problem A (known graph problem) to problem B (funky and specific longest path problem). There is a lot of demands on how problem B is supposed to be solved. ...
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101 views

Find Hamiltonian cycle in polynomial time

I want to know for what types of graph it is possible to find Hamiltonian cycle in polynomial time. It would be helpful also to show why on some types of graph finding Hamiltonian cycle would be only ...
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Modular reduction in a finite field

Let $\mathbb{F}_p$ be a finite field of prime order $p$. Define $r_q : \mathbb{F}_p \to \mathbb{F}_p$ as $r_q (x) = x \bmod q$ with $q<p$. A tad more formally, treat $x$ as an integer in $[0, p)$ ...
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248 views

Relation beetween log-space reduction and polynomial time reduction

I read somewhere that given two languages A and B, if A <=(log) B, then A <=(P) B (with <=(log) the log-space reduction and <=(P) the polynomial time reduction), but I'm not sure about the ...
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Finding simple min-weight path between two vertices in graph with negative edge weights

Given a weighted graph (negative weights are allowed) and two vertices $u$ and $v$, can we find the simple min-weight path between $u$ and $v$? There can be a negative cycle on the path from $u$ to $v$...
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Theoretical performance measures other than worst case

Suppose that $P \neq NP$, and $P = BPP$. Assume one is given a decision language $L \in NPC$, and she has only polynomial time turing machines. Additionally, she can't use randomness (not sure that's ...
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57 views

Understanding integer factorization is NP [duplicate]

I can see that Integer factorization problem is in NP. I am looking for a simple intuition behind this. For example if we take the problem of sorting the complexity is $n\log n$ for merge/quick sort ...
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Sparse feasible solution $|x|_0\le k$ for system of linear inequalities $A x \le b$

Suppose the set of linear inequalities $Ax\le b$, in which $A\in\mathbb{R}^{m\times n},x,b\in\mathbb{R}^n$ is given. Is it possible to determine in polynomial time with regard to $m$ and $n$ if there ...
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1answer
29 views

Is there a “well known” example of a constraint satisfaction problem on a 3-element set which is polynomial-time solvable?

I'm basically looking for an example (in maybe graph theory) of a constraint satisfaction problem which has a 3-element set as a domain and the problem is known to be polynomial-time solvable.
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81 views

Existence of polynomial time reduction from P to R?

Why the next idea doesn't work: If L_2 in R and L_1 in P and the languages are not trivial, then there is a polynomial-time reduction from L_1 to L_2 I know ...

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