Questions tagged [process-scheduling]

Questions about how operating systems decide which process to execute at which time.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
19
votes
4answers
2k views

Does cooperative scheduling suspend processes when they perform an I/O operation?

Many operating systems references say that with cooperative (as opposed to preemptive) multitasking, a process keeps the CPU until it explicitly voluntarily suspends itself. If a running process ...
17
votes
3answers
2k views

What guarantees do “soft” real-time operating systems actually provide

I think I know what a "hard" real-time operating system is. It is an operating system with a scheduler that provides a contract with the application programmer. An application provides a deadline ...
10
votes
3answers
26k views

What is the difference between Multiprogramming and Multitasking

I am finding it difficult to clearly differentiate between Multiprogramming and Multitasking. My primary source has been Wikipedia, but the WP article seems to be a little at odds with some less ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Are two-level schedulers only useful to manage swapping?

Two-level scheduling is useful when a system is running more processes than fit in RAM: a lower-level scheduler switches between resident processes, and a higher-level scheduler swaps groups of ...
9
votes
4answers
13k views

What is meant by interrupts in the context of operating systems?

I've decided to read Operating Systems Concepts by Silberschatz, Galvin Gagne (8th edition) over the summer. I've gotten to a topic that's confusing me - interrupts and their role as it relates to ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Round-robin scheduling: allow listing a process multiple times?

In a round-robin scheduler, adding a process multiple times to the process list is a cheap way to give it higher priority. I wonder how practical an approach this might be. What benefit does it have ...
7
votes
5answers
106k views

What is the average turnaround time?

For the following jobs: The average wait time would be using a FCFS algorithm: (6-6)+(7-2)+(11-5)+(17-5)+(14-1) -> 0+5+6+10+13 -> 34/5 = 7 (6.8) What would the average turnaround time be?
7
votes
1answer
2k views

How are threads implemented in different OSs?

I was reading Linux Kernel Development by Robert Love, where I came across this Linux takes an interesting approach to thread support: It does not differentiate between threads and normal ...
6
votes
4answers
25k views

The convoy effect in process scheduling

As I understand the convoy effect, in the context of vehicular traffic in a road system. A slow moving group of vehicles passes through the system, slowing traffic even in areas which were not ...
6
votes
2answers
9k views

How does the OS determine the CPU burst time of a process?

This question is related to OS. After having solved many problems in CPU scheduling I was wondering how does the CPU know the burst time of all the processes in the main memory before executing them? ...
6
votes
2answers
8k views

Which queue does the long-term scheduler maintain?

There are different queues of processes (in an operating system): Job Queue: Each new process goes into the job queue. Processes in the job queue reside on mass storage and await the allocation of ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Difficulty understanding pre-emptive vs non-preemptive CPU scheduling

I'm having difficulty understanding what my book is trying to say in regards to preemptive and non-preemptive CPU scheduling. It says the following: CPU Scheduling decisions may take place under ...
5
votes
6answers
4k views

Does Deadlock imply Starvation

If there is a deadlock between the processes does that mean that there is starvation also? My Thinking: deadlock is no process using that resources , but starvation is like not giving chance to only ...
5
votes
1answer
114 views

Is there a generic word for “thread or process”?

I'm writing about a problem that could be caused by race conditions between multiple threads, or OS-level processes on the same machine or different machines, or VM-level processes like the Erlang VM ...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

example for weakly fair v.s. strongly fair scheduling in concurrency

I am having difficult time understanding the difference between weakly fair and strongly fair schedulers. Can someone provide an example and explain how they are different? for reference, here are ...
5
votes
1answer
9k views

Operating system processes

I'm a bit confused about this question: "Multiple jobs can run in parallel and finish faster than if they had run sequentially. Suppose that two jobs, each needing 10 minutes of CPU time, start ...
4
votes
1answer
4k views

How does the OS know the physical address of a process' first memory page?

If I have a program, its instructions are stored on the hard drive. When I double-click the executable the pages of memory for this process must get loaded in to RAM. However, for the pages to get ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

How are system calls handled in a virtual machine?

Quoting wikipedia, a system call is: In computing, a system call is how a program requests a service from an operating system's kernel. This may include hardware related services (e.g. ...
4
votes
0answers
438 views

Problems of cyclic executive approach for scheduling of real time systems

I have a doubt on the cyclic executive approach for scheduling on real time systems. From Alan Burns's book Real-time Systems and Programming Languages. This final property represents one of the ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

What mechanisms prevent a process from taking over the processor forever?

Suppose a process keeps running code (e.g. an infinite loop). How can other programs take over? What prevents the process from remaining active forever?
3
votes
1answer
2k views

What is a student process?

According to Galvin and Silberschatz, 5 queues are maintained in multilevel queue scheduling, each for: System Process Interactive Process Interactive Editing Process Batch process Student Process ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Scheduling algorithms and quantum time

I would like to know what impacts does a scheduling algorithm, let's say Round Robin or FIFO, have on an Operating System. I understand that a scheduling algorithm has the processes run in burst then ...
3
votes
3answers
9k views

Highest Response Ratio Next (Scheduling Algorithm)

In CPU scheduling HRRN(Highest Response Ratio Next) algorithm chooses the next process to be scheduled using the formula (W+S)/S where W-> waiting time & S->Service Time. Can someone share their ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Is bounded waiting ensured in given version of Dekker's solution for critical section problem?

William Stallings discuss various step by step process in developing Dekker's algorithm in his Operating Systems book. In process, he reaches to following version of algorithm (which is incomplete as ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Which process states exist a multi-processor machine?

In a single-processor architecture, A process might be New, Ready, Running, Blocked and Terminated. Are there any additional states in a multi-processor architecture?
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Time quantum assignment to processes

In a book I am reading it is stated that an input/output intensive process should receive a higher time quantum whereas a computing intensive process on the other hand should receive a lower one. Here ...
3
votes
1answer
594 views

A variant of job assignment (scheduling) problem with variable time span

The problem is a scheduling problem with n jobs and k machines. Each job i can be started at any time, but its duration is not exactly known except a time span interval. For example, a job may take ...
3
votes
1answer
571 views

Convoy effect in priority scheduling and SJF (Non preemptive)

In books, I have read that FCFS suffers from convoy effect. I think that even SJF and priority(both preemptive and non preemptive) can suffer from convoy effect. In SJF, if a process with large burst ...
3
votes
2answers
401 views

Paging: Does the page table of a process also gets swapped out when the process gets swapped out from main memory?

Does a process's page table too gets swapped out to secondary storage from main memory when the process gets swapped out to secondary storage from main memory? And gets swapped back in when the ...
2
votes
4answers
2k views

Operating System - CPU scheduling Decisions

I understand that CPU scheduling takes place on 4 circumstances listed below: When the process changes state from Running to Ready Changes state from Running to Waiting Changes state from Waiting to ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

User level threads are transparent to the kernel?

Find whether given statement True or False? Explain. User level threads are transparent to the kernel? My attempt : False. Since, user level threads are managed by a user level library however, they ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

How does a dual core microprocessors run so many programs?

I have a laptop with Intel dual core and it runs, the OS windows, and many application from Opera, age of empires, word, excel etc open at once just fine. If it only has 2 cores, how can so many ...
2
votes
1answer
320 views

How exactly does a CPU do process scheduling?

I know in theory how various scheduling algorithms work, such as round robin, where each process is given small time slices to run a few instructions, before the operating system passes execution onto ...
2
votes
2answers
68 views

Why does the operating system switch an active process to different cores?

When running a single-threaded application that is 'always busy', on a multi-core computer, modern operating systems will typically switch the process from one core to another from time to time. Even ...
2
votes
2answers
437 views

Characterize an OS as multiprogrammed OS

Which of the following features will characterize an OS as multiprogrammed OS? More than one program may be loaded into main memory at the same time. If a program waits for certain event another ...
2
votes
1answer
880 views

Appreciation of the 5 state process model

I'm starting out in an Operating Systems module. I have a few understanding questions to think about, which will not be gone through in class. A process state model is an abstraction (or model) which ...
2
votes
1answer
841 views

Questions about Amdahl's law?

Doing exam papers now and I came across two questions which I cannot get my head around sadly. Both are regarding Amdahl's law and Parallel Computing but they seem rather simple and frustratingly ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Existence of Real-Time Multiprocessor Schedule

Does an algorithm exist to check for the existence of a Real-Time Multiprocessor Schedule for aperiodic hard tasks(all of which have the same Release time)? Assumptions: The processors are Uniform ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Should we assume both processes are getting same CPU clock while we solve SYNCHRONIZATION problems in uniprocessor system?

In synchronization, when one process is in a critical section & another is busy waiting, both are using CPU. But in a uni processor system, in the same clock both cant get the CPU. So there must ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Does a context switch happen when a process has terminated?

I know this might sound like a newbie question but let's say we have a priority based scheduling algorithm (non-preemptive) where all processes arrive at time 0 and based on priority the order is P1, ...
2
votes
1answer
463 views

Understanding google's user level threads in kernel threads

I came across Paul Turner work on increasing efficiency of M:N threading model. I am not able to grasp the concept at slide 18 of LPC-User-Threading It says : for two threads ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Can Shortest Job First Scheduling be subject to convoy effect?

Look at the below table for example : Look at the Non-Preemptive SJF table Suppose if the burst time of process $P_1$ was a very large number compared to $7$, the processes $P_3,P_2$ and $P_4$ have ...
2
votes
1answer
112 views

What is cold-start penalty ? What are some ways to reduce it?

when a new process is created using a fork() function, there is a cold start penalty, what is this and why does it happen?
2
votes
1answer
159 views

Numerator of HRRN scheduling formula

In the HRRN scheduling, priority formula is P = (W+E)/E , where W: waiting time and E: estimated run time. CPU finds the job that has highest priority value and does that job. However, the formula ...
2
votes
1answer
318 views

How does CFS prevent a long sleeping task from occupying the CPU?

The Completely Fair Scheduler executes the task that has so far received the least share of CPU time and is thus the most 'disadvantaged'. So if a task sleeps for a really long time, say 3hrs, how ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Round Robin Scheduling

I understand that a big advantage of round robin scheduling over non-preemptive schedulers is that it dramatically improves average response times. By limiting each task to a certain amount of time, ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Starvation Condition in CPU/Process Scheduling?

Let's say OS is using preemptive CPU scheduling. A process P1 gets a chance to run for some time and then next higher priority process comes and preempts P1. After that higher priority processes are ...
2
votes
1answer
206 views

Process state in multi threaded process

What would be the process state in a multi threaded process, in which threads are in different states (running, waiting, blocked etc)
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Finding the timestamps of processes implementing Lamport's clocks

I have been asked this question, but don't know how to go about answering it. Three process, which are implementing Lamport's clocks, are running and a lot of events are taking, place including some ...
2
votes
0answers
107 views

long-lived scheduling using max-flow & push/relabel

I'm writing a scheduler of long-lived Processors which execute long-lived Tasks. Processors and Tasks may each come and go over time, at any time (when a Processor departs, its assigned Tasks now ...