Questions tagged [propositional-logic]

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Computational complexity in Boolean network

An Boolean control networks can be expressed as \begin{equation} \label{ControlBN} \left\{\begin{array}{l}{x_{1}(t+1)=f_{1}\left(x_{1}(t), \cdots, x_{n}(t), u_{1}(t), \cdots, u_{m}(t)\right),} \\ {x_{...
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45 views

What does it mean to “show algebraically” in propositional logic?

The biconditional operator $\iff$ of Propositional Logic can be defined by the identity $p \iff q \equiv (\lnot p \lor q) \land (\lnot q \lor p) \quad (1.1)$ Use the identity $(1.1)$ and identities ...
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26 views

Simplify logical expression represented as binary tree

I implemented logical expressions using a binary tree in C++. Now I want to be able to simplify such an expression using rules like e.g. but have issues with the commutativity. Assuming the ...
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1answer
40 views

Consistent theory based on L and not(A->A) is a theorem

I am working on this problem in which I have a theory $T$ based on language $\mathcal{L}$ and the only information we have is that T is consistent and $\vdash \lnot(A \rightarrow A)$. Given this ...
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538 views

Does exist any horn formula that is equisatisfiable to the clause that is disjunction of two literals? Does also exist equivalent?

I just and simply want to know if whether or not exist any horn formula that is equisatisfiable to $(p\lor q)$. I would also be interested to know if there also exists equivalent.
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About the complexity of deciding if the closed world assumption for renamable Horn CNF is consistent

Let $T$ be a theory that only contains renamable horn formulas. What is the complexity of deciding if the closed world assumption $CWA(T)$ is consistent? The closed world assumption is defined as ...
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1answer
41 views

How are prime implicates of HORN-Formulas defined?

I'm confused about the definition of prime implicates in Horn formulas. For example in the paper of Kira 2012 on page 109 it is stated: Now in the paper of Boros 2010 on page 82 the following ...
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2answers
69 views

Equivalence of Krom formulas tractable?

Assume I have two Krom formulas $\psi_1, \psi_2$. Krom formulas are propositional formulas in CNF that have 2 literals in every clause. Each literal can be negated or unnegated. In other words, $\...
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1answer
33 views

Equivalence of Horn formulas tractable?

Assume I have two Horn formulas $\phi_1, \phi_2$. Horn formulas are CNF formulas so that each clause has at most one unnegated literal. For example: $x_1 \wedge (\neg x_1 \vee \neg x_2 \vee x_3 )\...
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39 views

“State of the art” algorithms deciding entailment of propositional formulas?

I fail to find much about how to efficiently calculate whether a propositional formula entails another. Considering the following two points... We can check, for each truth assignment which makes the ...
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1answer
76 views

Is Monotone 3-SAT with exactly 3 distinct variables untractable?

I have given the following SAT variation: Given a formula F in CNF where each clause C has exactly 3 distinct literals and for each C in F either all literals are positive or all literals are negated....
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14 views

Circuits and formulas for Clique

Is it correct to say that the Clique Problem is in $P$ iff there exists a family of Boolean circuits $C$ to decide Clique whose sizes are bounded by a polynomial? And based on this question, does that ...
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An optimization version of 2QBF: is it $\mathsf{NP}^{\mathsf{NP}}$-hard?

I am studying the computational complexity of the following decision problem related to 2QBF: Input: a 3-CNF formula $\varphi$ over $X \cup Y$, where $X$, $Y$ are disjoint sets of propositional ...
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1answer
35 views

Unification Algorithm without Occur Check

I have been reading about Unification algorithm here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_(computer_science)#A_unification_algorithm . And I wonder about the importance of occur check. I know ...
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1answer
42 views

Convert propositional logic formulas to mathematical constraints

Brief introduction In all boolean (or more generally mixed-integer) linear programs, constraints are represented as a matrix $A$, a support vector $b$ and is computed by $A^T x \leq b$, where $x$ is ...
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5k views

Boolean algebraic expression vs Propositional logic expression

There is a lot of similarity between Propositional logic and Boolean algebraic expressions. Similar aspects : 1) Both has variables of two states. 2) Operations of Boolean algebra and ...
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23 views

Correctness of Simple Programs

For a homework assignment I am asked to provide claim sequences to verify that the given conditional does indeed satisfy its specification (to compute in r the absolute value of x). ...
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34 views

Large Conjunctive Normal Form Examples

I'm currently learning about conjunctive normal form in a course on logic for Computer Science. I was reading the Wikipedia entry on the subject and encountered this: Typical problems in this case ...
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1answer
42 views

Programming in Propositional Logic article notation question

I was reading this article about propositional logic and transforming problems to SAT. The author often uses the following notation (taken from Dominating set section): I don't understand what $[v,i]$...
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1answer
41 views

Definition of 2-CNF (a.k.a Krom) formula

In my lecturer's notes, the following definition for a 2-CNF wff is given: A 2-CNF formula, or Krom formula is a CNF formula F such that every clause has at most two literals. However, there is ...
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36 views

What if P implies Q is false when both P and Q are false?

This is actually a problem that our professor gave us, and I'm clueless of how to answer this. I browsed through various sources, but none were helpful regarding this question. The question is, In ...
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1answer
34 views

Representing a sentence using propositional logic

I am confused regarding a propositional logic representation of a sentence. Please note that this sentence is not realistic: "A person who is male (M) is smart (S) if he is tall (T), but otherwise ...
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1answer
27 views

Embedded arithmetic set expressions

In set builder notation, we can represent the set: $$\{ 2, 7\}$$ as: $$\{ x | x=2 \vee x=7 \}$$. Therefore, the PA arithmetic predicate: $$φ(x) := x=2 \vee x=7$$ is capable of representing this set....
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1answer
35 views

Complexity of negation cancellation

Consider propositional logic over the connectives $\land$, $\lor$, and $\lnot$. Notation: $| \alpha |$ is the length of formula $\alpha$. We are given a formula $\phi$. Cancel all cancellable ...
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1answer
32 views

Significance of quantifier ordering in quantified boolean formulas (kQBF vs. QBF)

I am studying solvers of quantified boolean formulas (QBF) as a generalization of SAT solving. The standard DIMACS format of SAT specification is extended to QDIMACS, which adds "a ..." and "e ..." ...
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2answers
75 views

Does the naive conversion of a Boolean Formula to CNF have a polynomial or exponential complexity?

I am reading the naive conversion to CNF, this procedure is explaining in this book book, but I have not found a conplexity analysis of this algorithm: elimination of equivalence Elimination of ...
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45 views

How to correctly negate a predicate bounded by some quantifiers?

this is a problem which was asked in GATE CS 2010. This is question statement: Q: Suppose the predicate F(x, y, t) is used to represent the statement that person x can fool person y at time t. which ...
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40 views

How to write negation of an 'AND' statement in logic

Suppose the given proposition is: "Zach blocks emails and texts from Jennifer" Where, P implies "Zach blocks emails from Jennifer". Q implies "Zach blocks texts from Jennifer". So it's P AND Q in ...
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1answer
108 views

The optimized numbers of variables and clauses to encode a graph coloring problem in CNF

Problem Statement Given a finite graph $G = \langle V, E\rangle$, consisting of vertice set $V$ and edge set $E$, and a finite set of colors $C$, a problem instance of graph coloring is to assign ...
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1answer
40 views

Non-Boolean SAT

I was wondering about the complexity of SAT tests with variables $x_i = 0 \lor 1 \lor 2 \dots \lor n$, with clauses being of the form $x_i = a \implies x_j \neq b$. When $n=2$, we have 2SAT, which has ...
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55 views

prove that {$↔,⊕$} is incomplete set?

How do i prove that Is {$↔,⊕$} not a complete set ? I have no clue how to prove it .
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406 views

Iota combinator and implicational propositional calculus

There is are two esoteric languages with minimally functionally complete operators, iota and jot, that are closely related to SK combinators. I'm attempting to understand the relationship between ...
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1answer
110 views

Are these 2 equivalent?

Is ∀x∀y∀z[φ(x,y)∧p(y,z)->p(x,z)] equivalent to ∀x∀y∀z[φ(x,y)∧p(x,z)->p(y,z)] ? The only thing I can think of is that this question can be answered if we show that ...
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163 views

Can this set of propositions be represented and proved in Haskell?

I used a set of natural language statements and their formalization from Gries and Schneider. I attempted to transform the propositions into Haskell equations. For example, for S0 : $a \land w \...
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53 views

What are necessity and sufficiency?

I was reading deadlock topic from Operating Systems book by Stallings. It states four pre requisites for deadlock: Mutual exclusion No preemption Hold and wait Circular wait It then have following ...
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1answer
72 views

Context-free grammar for tautologies in one variable

Construct a context-free grammar for the set of tautologies in $p$ - that is, the set of formulae in $\{p, \text{true}, \text{false}, \land, \lor, \lnot, (, )\}$ which evaluate to $\text{true}$ for ...
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2answers
109 views

Are $\mathsf{\#P}$ problems harder than $\mathsf{NP}$ problems

I have a method to solve the $\mathsf{\#P}$ version of 3SAT in a way that seemingly reduces it to an $\mathsf{NP}$ problem. - I don't have a formal understanding of these terms so I will just show an ...
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1answer
73 views

3-CNF to “independent form”

Is it possible to convert all logical formulae into a form such that each variable ends up in exactly 1 "factor" of the and operation? ($\wedge$). Any combination of operations is allowed, though the ...
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1answer
64 views

Conjunctive normal form to simple elementary algebra

I'm curious to know the computational complexity class of each step in this method of converting a CNF formula into simple elementary algebra. An example: $$\phi=\left(x_1 \vee x_2 \right) \wedge \...
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1answer
88 views

Algorithm for automatic construction of natural deduction proofs

I was wondering if there exists any algorithm for automatic construction of nautral deduction proofs. I'm interested in propositional logic and first order logic. If there is no algoritm, can you ...
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78 views

A Quine–McCluskey variant for conjunctive normal formal?

There is the Quine–McCluskey algorithm for finding a minimal expression of a boolean expression in dis-junctive normal form. Would applying DeMorgan's rule to the minimal DNF result in the minimal CNF?...
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111 views

Is it a tautology or not? According to my truth table its not

If $\bigr((q\leftrightarrow p)\leftrightarrow s\bigl)$ is a tautology and $p\rightarrow s$ is contingent, does it follow that $q\rightarrow s$ is contingent? Since I can't show $\bigr((q\...
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Is there a correspondence of steps between DPLL and sequent-calculus?

Is there a correspondence between the steps in using DPLL to find out that a formula in propositional logic is unsatisfiable and using sequent calculus to prove that its negation is valid? And given ...
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1answer
31 views

How do I determine if this argument is valid?

I'm studying propositional logic the section on "valid arguments". A self-assessment question reads "Show whether or not the following argument is valid" $\frac{P}{C}$ I don't know what function ...
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1answer
26 views

Does “$\forall x\in L, \sigma(\neg x)=\neg \sigma(x)$” hold given that $\sigma(F)\equiv F$ for a CNF formula $F$ built on a set $L$ of literals?

Suppose we have a CNF formula $F$ built on the set of literals $L=\{x_1,\neg x_1,\cdots,x_n,\neg x_n\}$ where each variable is used in at least one clause of $F$. Consider a permutation $\sigma$ of $L$...
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61 views

Why we treat sentence letter $Q$ as conclusion in one form and premise in other?

Sorry for asking such a dumb question. I am CS student and I am trying to understand the basic tenets of Logic. I am new to the subject and I am lost understanding Implication. In formal logic, $(P\...
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1answer
166 views

Does every 3CNF propositional formula has an equivalent 2CNF propositional formula?

Does every 3CNF propositional formula has an equivalent 2CNF propositional formula? Definitions: 3CNF propositional formula is conjunctive normal form propositional formula, which is just ...
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1answer
278 views

Matrix Representation for logical gates?

I have been trying to find if there are other matrix type representations logical circuits, in the example below, $$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0\\ 1 & 1\\ \end{bmatrix} \equiv \, \, \Rightarrow$$ ...
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48 views

Finding CNF of $(p \rightarrow q) \rightarrow p$ and $\lnot (q \wedge (\lnot p \rightarrow q)) $

I'm trying to find the CNF of the $(p \rightarrow q) \rightarrow p$ and $\lnot (q \wedge (\lnot p \rightarrow q))$, and afterwards proving it's validity. As i'm new to CNF i wanted to ensure i've ...
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85 views

Why Modus ponens works with Horn clauses and Generalized Modus ponens requires definite clauses?

I am reading the Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach book and in the chapters about logic i noticed that in propositional logic the Modus ponens inference rule (used by the forward and backward ...